Found a neat picture that is the ultimate in the steps you should use in recycling equipment.

recycle

Recycling experiment with per se non toxic chemicals. Pyrex not really required yet.

gold1

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More and more of the plastic routers you get from a retailer are limiting you from installling a third party firmware to make the unit more valuable. So it is nice you can put an old pc back to work and install the same kind of firmware you would put on the store bought routers. Also with the pc you can swap the nic cards for better nics without getting a whole new system.

Pulled out of the closet the pc I was using as a router and found that a few things have changed. I just went ahead and installed the latest openwrt kamikaze image on the system. What does the system have? Intel PII 266 mhz with 192 meg ram. The openwrt hard drive is only 2 gig. Thinking about using another case. The system actually has two drives. one with a minimal Debian linux to be able to get the latest image or dd (or install) to the openwrt drive. The Debian linux drive is usally left unconnected.

First thing I did was to change the dead motherboard battery.  Second  thing I did was change the password from the console.

There have been a few changes and a few quirks. When I cranked up the system it did not seem to see the wan (internet). so I had to do a couple of things.

# Copyright (C) 2006 OpenWrt.org

config interface loopback
option ifname    lo
option proto    static
option ipaddr    127.0.0.1
option netmask    255.0.0.0

config interface lan
option ifname    eth0
option type     bridge
option proto    static
option ipaddr    192.168.6.1
option netmask    255.255.255.0

config interface wan
option ifname eth1
option proto dhcp

First I had to add the wan interface to the /etc/config/network file. Those are the last three lines. then I had to bring up the interface with:

# ifup eth1

I also changed the default ipaddress of the lan from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.6.1 so as to not interfere with my local network.

local network 192.168.1.x) > router > private network (192.168.6.x)

Then there were changes to some of the commands. You used to use ipkg, so now to update the system you would use (opkg replaced ipkg):

# opkg update

You can ssh root@openwrtbox and do everything remotey from the command line.

So far so good. Then I tried to access a web interface remotely. Did not work, So I had to install a web interface to the system. There are actually three to choose from. I chose Luci or the first on the list suggested in the install notes.  To do that you have to add the repository (where to get the files from). So you add that repository to the /etc/opkg.conf file. In this case it was just one line or the last line in the file:

src/gz snapshots http://downloads.openwrt.org/kamikaze/8.09.2/x86/packages
dest root /
dest ram /tmp
lists_dir ext /var/opkg-lists
option overlay_root /jffs
src luci http://downloads.openwrt.org/kamikaze/8.09.2/x86/packages

Now you let the system know the file has changed, so again you do:

# opkg update

The you need to install the web interface. There are quite a few modules you can install, but I just did the basic interface. You can add more later.

# opkg install luci-web

At this point it would not hurt to do a reboot. You should then be able to see the router’s web page.

Cool!  Almost forgot. If you have more than one pc to connect to the router, you will need to get a switch.

Note: Some people say that using a pc for a router has much better throughput that the plastic store bought routers. Your mileage may very.

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Lets play with assembly language programming one last time.  This time let’s use dos assembly language programming. A program is a set of instructions much like a recipe. With this recipe, we will have to use commands like you might use stir in a recipe.To make this recipe, we will use debug.com which is sort of a simple interactive assembler/disassembler. Our goal with the program is to print out the letter A. Now that seems a bit simple, but you have to start somewhere. So fire up debug from the command prompt. We are going to use dosbox (dos simulator) to make it easy to capture images. Thall shalt document. But first let us look at the letter A. If we went to an ascii  (american standard code for information interchange) table we can see the letter A is 65. So far so good.. But the computer does not recognize that nunber as the letter A. You remember base 10 arithmetic. where you have ten fingers to work with to do math. Well the computer in this case has 16 fingers or base 16,.so we have to translate that base 10 A to a base 16 A. Base 16 is also known as hexadecimal. Fortunately there is a chart to do that so we do not have to calculate it. So base 10 A is 65, therefor base 16 A is 41. So we will have to use 41 to let the computer know we want to print out the letter A. Seemed like a lot of work, but it is not really.

Screenshot from 2013-01-14 03:21:09
The chart confirms the 41 is the letter A. Your computer’s brain has temporary storage locations known as regisiers. You could equate them as internal mail boxes.  We have two registers we will use dl and ah for the values we need to use.  We also want to use some commands not unlike stir for a recipe. In this case we will use a mov command to put data in the registers or mail boxes we just talked about. Lastly we will use the int command. That tells the computer to stop what you are doing and go do some special commands. What happens is Dos has some built in instructions that we can use to save a lot of programming.  We will let dos do all the hard work.so all we have to do is to let Dos know what we want done. Lets put those instructions together.
mov dl, 41  ; So we are moving the letter A into a register, so the computer knows what to print out.
mov ah, 02 ; We are letting the computer know we want the letter A to be printed to the screen. 02 stands for the screen
int 21 : there is that command that says hey dos, print out what is in register dl using the output location in register ah.
int 20 : Says stop this program and go back to where I was before I started the program.
That is all there is to the program. if you have started debug you should see a dash prompt. Type a100 to let the computer know you want to enter some instructions. So enter the instructions.and then hit enter on a blank line. you should get the dash again. Let’s see if our program works!. press g and then return. You should the the letter A on a separate line, and you should get the dash prompt again. Neat!! You entered and assembled your first program. Tada!!!
Screenshot from 2013-01-14 03:07:44
Now lets see what memory looks like where you entered your program.  Type d100 and return. What is there seems unreadable except  the 41, 02, 21 and 20 you typed in. b2 stands for mov into ah and b4 stands for move into dl. cd stand for int.  If that seems hard to remember you can always translate back what you keyed in. (aka unasemble. So type in u100, 107 and you should see your program again.
Screenshot from 2013-01-14 03:11:59
You can display memory again with the d100  use the gcommand to run the program. if everything was typed correctly, you should see the letter a.to see nothing has changed. If you turned off or reset the machine the program would be gone.
Screenshot from 2013-01-14 03:14:44
Now do not be afraid, but we are going to wipe out the program.press e100 and return. You are show the old numbers but you want to replace each one of them with 0. Once you are done, do the d100 and look at the memory. so your program is gone. No problem. We can do the e100 again and type in the numbers again b2 41 b4 02 cd 21 cd 20. when you get back to a prompt Type a g and return. you should see your program run again. Cool. What that means is you can enter the assembly code or the hexadecimal numbers for your computer to display the A.
Screenshot from 2013-01-14 03:15:17.
If you type the u100, 107 you can see the original code you typed in. Cool. If you wanted to have sentences print out you will use different code as doing thoie three lines over and over can be a challenge. Doing assembly on most machines is very much alike what you have just done, but the commands may be a dit different.
Some of the early computer cartoons dealt with programmers who were really thick glases becuase of all the numbers they had to look at. Things have changed. Enought of assembly, so you do not have to get the thick programmer glasses.

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Testing some antennas

Also wanted to test the composite output of an old computer I have.

tv4pic

Next antenna, I think is a Gray-Hoverman antenna. I tried to follow the specs the best I could.

tv2pic

The last antenna I tested was a fractal based antenna. it was definitely directional.

P000-256-274-537-f1016

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Went in the closet and found two really old Gateway laptops. One was from back in 2002. The Solo 3350 was sort of a notebook before there were notebooks. It has a detachable drive that you could either insert a floppy or a dvd-rom drive.  Shame it only had a max of 256 megs f memory per gateway specifications.    It had a foobarred Ubuntu install. I just went ahead and installed Debian Squeeze on it.. I can use it to access network devices, Anyway there was on quirk in that the boot record did not install correctly. No problem. rebooted witt e install cd and went into the rescue mode. chrooted to the hard drive root, then ran the command:

# /usr/sbin/grub-install

Rebooted and all was well! Reinstalled Debian squeeze on the other system and then upgraded to wheezy.  Let both machine recharged the batteries. Surprised me to no end that the batteries still worked at least for the short time I tested them.

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Generating electricity with hot and cold water.

hotcold

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Piadizza(cross between a roman taco called a piadina ) and a pizza.

P000-260-317-645-df026

Good day.

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