Was watching one of my instructables: http://www.instructables.com/id/Atx-to-At-ps-test-cable/. Noticed that lately there seems to be more and more interest in the cable. The calbe allows you with proper atx power supplies to attach and use it with an at motherboard. AT power supplies are not really mae anymore. Now you can buy the cable off the shelf at better electronics stores. I did not know if it could even be done.Sure did not want to spend any more money on an old machine. So I looked thought the parts bin and did some research what what the AT and  ATX motherboard interface supported. Came up with a cable that looked like it might work. It ill not work will all AT power supplies, but at least many will (if they support  -5v). Actually the main impetus behind the dabe was you can not easily find at dc-dc power supplies. You can get ATX dc-dc power supplies. I needed a way to connect the dc-dc power uplly to the old AT motherboard that was going to be used as part of apc based robot.

This last week I was going to the parts bin to see what all I could put together using the old pentium one computers that used the old AT powersupplu interface. Ended up putting four or five together. Surprised I still had that may spare parts. Do have some AT power supplies, so I did not have to make anymore cables. You get your little system built, so what next? you need to install an operating system. If you used the operatings system from then the equipment first cane out you could have some real issues. MSWindows 8 or even the latest major linux distros will not run on a pentium one. Anything else?

Operating systemDescriptionSite

openbsd 5.2 Cd/dvdrom or from just three floppy disks. http://openbsd.org
Tinycore linux Cd/dvdrom http://tinycorelinux.net/
Slackware linux Cd/dvdrom http://www.slackware.com/

If you were going to run a system that was not for primary use on the internet, you probably could use an older version of some operating system. For instance. I decide to use ubuntu 5.10 server on one of the old pentium one’s.

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Thoughts about the right tech.
Quote from an unnamed blog:
Quote:
Probably going to get lambasted for this, but it is something to think about when judging a potential employee. Can a potential employee use what they have or do they need thousands of dollars just to do the simplest thing to get going. Here we will pit a confirmed Microsoft software only advocate versus someone who has at least some familiarity with linux or is willing to try something new and use the systems alloted to them.

In each of two separate rooms on the desk is a Pentium II computer with 128 megs of ram, minimal graphics card, network connection, floppy drive and a 4 gig hard drive. This system will have access to the internet. Also on the desk, are two items. A brand new MSWindows 7 dvd install disk and a gpxe based floppy setup to install linux remotely via the network. The two potential techs are sent to each of the separate rooms to get their computer up and running plus send an email to predefined email address left on a piece of paper also on the desk.

After an hour we hear the Microsoft software only advocate say he or she thew away the floppy as being worthless. Then they go on to complain they did not have a real computer to complete the job. They felt the project was unfair and demeaning. They also said they wanted no part of this type of company.

At the same time, we go over to the other room and find the other applicant working away sending an email as requested in the test. The floppy was put to full use and the MSWindows dvd was left untouched. That applicant in his or her email thanked the company for giving them such an opportunity to be useful.

Which applicant do you think should be offered a position? Which potential employee would you want? You might be also thinking, how can I use Linux to save money in my company?
Quote from an unnamed blog:
I’d do the remote Linux install and send an email message saying that an investment in modern and current computer hardware is a tax deductible item that can be written off against corporate taxes. If they want their next door neighbors son to keep tweaking the system instead of building their business by using the technology tools that are appropriate, I suggest they hire them at minimum wage instead – because you sure as hell know that the company still using a PII system and a cobbled together Linux desktop will not be paying proportionate to the amount of effort to maintain the hardware, let alone the operating system, and office productivity tools required by their staff.
__________________
I’d go for the 2nd guy automatically based on your scenario and personal experience. People with degrees seem to act like gods having to have the most expensive tools and such. Meanwhile they accomplish nothing but high costs. The 2nd guy with little experience trying to make due with what’s available was able to fulfill the task and thankful for the opportunity. I find the guys with little experience to be more honest and more helpful besides forums such as here. There is 1 computer place I’ve been to where they actually helped you out & not try to scam you to make a buck.

I don’t know what the Microsoft advocate was thinking, old or new I can’t think of a system that runs that can’t at least send or receive emails. With those specs, your kind of forced to use Linux because you need at least a 1 gig of ram to run Windows 7 for the basic functions.

If I were that Microsoft Advocate, I would have politely said that you need more memory for Win 7 to run at the very least.

That’s stupid. It’s not a test of ability, it’s just a way to piss off the people who don’t know anything about linux. If it was a test of ability, there’d be no Win7 DVD.

If you want a linux guy, hire a linux guy. If you want a Windows guy, hire a Windows guy. Knowing linux does not make a tech better or worse – it’s just that many people who know linux have a wider range of experience. But that’s not a rule either, there are plenty of linux folks who have buried themselves so far into it that they are practically helpless on Windows or Mac OS.

The real trick to hiring someone good is to NOT ACCEPT BAD CANDIDATES. Have high standards. It’s easy to tell a good tech from a bad one if you’re already a good tech. If the applicant pool sucks, start again, don’t just hire the least crappy person.

I’d have to agree with the last comment. It’s a test biased toward linux experience not innate technical ability.

If you want someone with experience with a specific OS then don’t play games. Be specific and concrete in your job requirements.

If you want someone who is flexible and can adapt to changing conditions, then place various systems in the room with planted failures in hardware, software, or both and let them resolve it. If it’s a software development job, then use their bonefides and fire them if they lie or inflate their resume. IMO there’s also be ground for civil action for falsifying their application.

The test maybe be biased, but I don’t think it’s designed to piss people off who don’t know Linux. Yeah, I’m sure it will happen. If the 1st guy were more polite & forthcoming with why Win 7 wouldn’t work, I think that goes just as far as completing the task. I would probably give him or her a chance then.

It is a test, I’m sure there’s more to it than what’s on the surface.

The test had nothing to do with hardware/software we vs them, the test was about the ability to adapt, Both the software and the hardware did well. Personally I would not suggest to hire someone with only one OS skill. Could be that if both Linux and Microsoft were gone (i doubt it), I would want the person who could adapt the best if something new did come along no matter what it is. Ironically, from what I have heard is that MS is going back to a real command line on the servers with gui also as a choice. They finally admit the gui servers are bloated.

You can use high end machines without using MS. It is a shame that most people do not know that. Never been a fan of any os that you have to pay for the sane thing all over again virtually once a year. I remember a version of windows 3.x that touted MS would support you forever and you would be free from upgrade costs., Like that happened.

I know someone with a masters degree in CS, but I would not let them work on my machine.I do applaud them for trying to learn how to use systems in the real world. Then again I know people with degrees in CS that could probably write software to get a rocket to the moon, but they did not have the first sense about how to do word processing or spreadsheets.

I have no use for MS only certified people. All they have done is memorize a book. We had one highly recommended ITT tech graduate come in. He was asked to point at at a ram chip. He pointed at the cpu. I have seen computer wizards that could hack anything, but to set up a working network was another issue. I have a college degree, but I came up through the school of hard knocks learning about computers. I think I can hold my own. Prefer people like me. They usually have a bit more common sense.

I have no use for MS only certified people. All they have done is memorize a book. We had one highly recommended ITT tech graduate come in. He was asked to point at at a tam chip. He pointed at the cpu.
So, all those brilliant Linux people out there … where did they get their knowledge? Memorise a man file? Ask a forum? Learning is learning. I think you might be confusing acquisition of knowledge with application of knowledge … and I have met just as many clueless people spouting off on the benefits of open source software.

I’m guessing you are the guy that drives your 1992 Crown Victoria into the mechanic with a hole in the muffler and tells the mechanic that you think it might be the carburetor.

Seriously? A TAM chip?? With TAM functionality being built into BIOS and CPUs (especially with consolidation of chips into SoC designs), pointing to the CPU would probably be right most of the time for modern motherboards.
__________________

I’m in a situation similar to the only knowing one OS predicament.

I’m CCNA certified and all I know is Cisco IOS. Throw me in front of JUNOS and I’m lost. Although with networking all you pretty much have to know are the principles and the configs can be googled and torrented. Fortunately most businesses use cisco although for how long is seriously under question.

Now would you spend your finite amount of time learning a skill that is only employable in about 20 percent of the market or learn one that is employable in about 80 percent of the market? You can either be mediocre at 2 things or be good at 1.
__________________

So, all those brilliant Linux people out there … where did they get their knowledge? Memorise a man file? Ask a forum? Learning is learning. I think you might be confusing acquisition of knowledge with application of knowledge … and I have met just as many clueless people spouting off on the benefits of open source software.

I’m guessing you are the guy that drives your 1992 Crown Victoria into the mechanic with a hole in the muffler and tells the mechanic that you think it might be the carburetor.

tam s/b ram. Typing with my eyes closed again. Actually do have a diploma in auto mechanics. I would not have that car. For people who have more diversity than just MS do pretty well. Like I said before, I prefer not to consider single disciplined individuals, no matter what it is.. It seems you have a mental block against open source and their patrons. I spent quite a few years in the MS world. I earned my bones. Now I want something better.

If you really know a subject, you should be able o transfer the knowledge fairly easily. Just knowing the syntax is know knowing a system, but it sure helps to know it though.. That is a hard pill to swallow for some people. I would like to get up to date on hardware, The ironic part is well still have the same basic parts of the computer system. That has never really changed.

Like a browser with a spell checker?
Yes, pointing out the RAM is valid, and important. Asking for the TAM is just plain stupid.

My comment on the car was pointing out (by analogy) that asking for the TAM was esoteric, and irrelevant to the problem at hand.

The Crown Vic is (was) a bomb proof car. There is a reason it was the choice of taxi fleets and law enforcement for decades. Like the computers you tend to prefer, they keep chugging along. The 92 Vic was also the first to ditch the carb, and go EFI.

I have no mental block against open source or their patrons, just the zealots. Like a republican/democrat political debate, the left wing free as in beer crowd are just as crazy as the right “its MS or nothing” folks.

The right person to hire is the one that chooses the appropriate tool for the job.

I was in a meeting today talking about a project I’ll be working on for a large manufacturer of . There is a ton of data they want analyzed. As a management team, their tool of choice is Excel. I don’t have a problem with that and I will present the results to them in Excel (I’ll be using a Mac, they are on Windows7, but that make no difference either), but I’ll be doing the complex analysis using a combination of the MySQL as the data store, Java, and a number of open source text mining libraries. I’ll pull the manipulated results into Excel via ODBC so they can then play with the numbers how they feel fit (Excel is a tool they all know and use … so its appropriate).
__________________

The test maybe be biased, but I don’t think it’s designed to piss people off who don’t know Linux. Yeah, I’m sure it will happen. If the 1st guy were more polite & forthcoming with why Win 7 wouldn’t work, I think that goes just as far as completing the task. I would probably give him or her a chance then.

It is a test, I’m sure there’s more to it than what’s on the surface.
Good answer.

Default Knowledge!
it not a test of ability, but knowledge. one needs to know what the hadware can and cant do with the giving software and os! as far as ability, i don’t know terminal well in linux or batch either in windows, knowledge is part of ones ability.

Note: To be fair Microsoft does have RIS (Remote install boot) which is similar to pxeboot, I am surprised it was not even mentioned. Though W7 probably would not run on a pentium II.

Update: I stand corrected: http://www.tomshardware.com/news/Windows-7-Pentium-II,8110.html#

———————————————————-
Was watching The Today Show and they had a segment where Microsoft was going to help out some schools and their computer educational programs with a free gifts of MSWindows 8. With articles like http://www.zdnet.com/mit-professor-windows-8-is-a-Christmas-gift-for-someone-you-hate-7000008479/ makes me wonder what MSFT is really up to. After a year, the school systems will probably have to start paying for licensing (also known as the Microsoft tax). So the MSWindows 8 will put the school systems possibly even in a worse situation. To add insult to injury, if the school system can not pay for software, they probably have not updated their equipment recently. So to run the so-called free MSWindows 8, the school system already stretched for money will have to spend a whole lot of money to upgrade their computer equipment just to install and run MSWindows 8. So how is that a bargain?

Enter open source,… In fact, one such free operating system that predates linux by about 10 years is BSD. BSD carries the same heritage of other fine versons of Unix software. Like linux, BSD depending on the flavor, supports several hardware platforms including some of the old Apple Macs. That is important because you do not have to have the latest equipment to run the latest version of the operating system. Even major flavors linux are starting to fade away some of the systems they support. Having worked at the college level as a computer tech, I can not tell you how much perfectly good equipment I saw go to auction and sold for pennies on the dollar, What a waste of taxpayer monies because the school system fell under the blinders of using proprietary software from the likes of Microsoft. Since leaving that position, they have now started to use open source for at least the school’s web server. They did teach linux via virtual machines though. I setup the very first linux lab using the original Redhat desktop linux via dual boot systems. As I said now everything is done with virtual machines from a main server,

The web server used software so the school can have a presence on the internet, just like the site you are using now. In particular, I understand they are allegedly using what is known as an lamp stack, (Linux (os), Apache (web server), Mysql (database or filing cabinet), and PHP Command language)). In fact you can go to netcraft.com to see what webserver software is run to serve out web pages. Many fine schools use the amp stack or the like such as rice.edu. Here is the netcraft page of what they are running, Certainly they are using powerful computing equipment to run that site.

Now let’s say you wanted to teach students about how to set up web sites. You need systems that can run the software in a lab environment. You want to have the same software be up to date, secure, and be low cost. Actually you can get the software for free! We said that BSD was one operating system that can run on a variety of platforms especially legacy equipment. Here is is a web page from a system that is running the Apache web server software. The same system could also easily could run the Apache, mysql, and PHP software. Just what you need in the student lab for students to learn about web serving! For that matter you could even teach yourself about how web servers work, You can have your own private web server on your home network.


Can you guess what type of computing hardware the software is running on? It is definitely using OPENBSD 5.2 (the latest version available) operating system. Take a guess.. Maybe a multicore 64 bit cpu that could cost thousands of dollars, Actually it is not. The system running the web server is an old pentium one ( 200 mhz with 128meg of ram with a 4 gig notebook hard drive (could have easily used compact flash or the like) from the 1990’s. That is ancient history in terms of computer systems. Most IT administrators would suggest that the hardware is highly likely for failure and needs to be replaced. That is something I would agree with. The ironic part to that is where I worked we had the latest equipment for the computer labs and at that time the latest systems were dying like flies. That caused a tremendous amount of down time labor to replace parts in thousands of machines. So what did the new equipment that should have run without issues give us. A lot more headache more than that of the equipment they replaced. The new equipment we used came from a major computer maker.. For personal reasons, I will not divulge the makers of the equipment.

Openbsd can be downloaded for free from a variety of website mirrors. You can get an install cd or even just three floppy disks to install the server with help from the internet, This can be all done in minutes. The basic web server software is installed by default. Once you have the system up an running, you can operate the the system without a monitor or headless and access it remotely via the secure shell (ssh). On my network I ran just a couple of shell files to see where the server was, the computer at 192.168.5.111 was the web server because I knew what the addresses of the other equipment was. Then confirming the computer name via a dns lookup. Notice the BSD in the name of the machine was a big hint.

$ pingall.sh
64 bytes from 192.168.5.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.556 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.5.111: icmp_req=1 ttl=255 time=0.421 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.5.115: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.082 ms
$ nslookup.sh
1.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = softserv.
10.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = router2.
20.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = router3.
31.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = oesrvr1.
98.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = printerland.
105.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = oeorgan01.
111.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = oeobsd01. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<
115.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = oedt01.
120.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = oesrvr3.
122.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = chumbino.
126.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = typo1.
127.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = oemsrvr01.
128.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = texttop.
129.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = amd800.
141.5.168.192.in-addr.arpa name = oeraspberrypi.
$

Then all I needed to do was remotely log into the web server and start the software. Also needed to set the software to start automatically, but that is easy. To make a long story short, you can use an older piece of equipment for vurtually free to use the latest software to teach yourself about web servers!!! Be honest, someone you know has one of those old systems in the closet that could be put back to work.

$ ssh 192.168.5.111
eddie@192.168.5.111’s password:
Last login: Sat Dec 15 18:51:25 2012 from oedt01
OpenBSD 5.2 (GENERIC) #278: Wed Aug 1 10:04:16 MDT 2012

Welcome to OpenBSD: The proactively secure Unix-like operating system.

Please use the sendbug(1) utility to report bugs in the system.
Before reporting a bug, please try to reproduce it with the latest
version of the code. With bug reports, please try to ensure that
enough information to reproduce the problem is enclosed, and if a
known fix for it exists, include that as well.

$ sudo /usr/sbin/apachectl start

We trust you have received the usual lecture from the local System
Administrator. It usually boils down to these three things:

#1) Respect the privacy of others.
#2) Think before you type.
#3) With great power comes great responsibility.

Password:
/usr/sbin/apachectl start: httpd started
$

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What you need to learn more about computing maybe in a closet near you! Sounds reasonable to me!

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Ramblings about installing openbsd.

Intro
Intro: Put a really old computer back to work.

Ever wish you could put that really old computer back to work with an up to date operating system.� The nice thing about this install is you do not ne…
1
Step 1: Preparing the media.

You will need access to a sytem that can format and prepare floppy disks. In fact you will need just three floppy disks to get going.� You will need t…
2
Step 2: The simple install.

4.5 – Performing a simple install OpenBSD’s new installer is designed to install and configure OpenBSD in a very usable default configuration with v…
3
Step 3: First login and adding packages.

since we enabled ssh during the install, we can remotely access the system. Makes it easier to document what is done. One of the options for installin…
4
Step 4: Set up a user.

Normally you want not want to log in as root from another system, besides we want to have our own account and a place other than root to store our fil…
PICT0366.JPG
Intro
Put a really old computer back to work.
Ever wish you could put that really old computer back to work with an up to date operating system. The nice thing about this install is you do not need a cd/dvdrom drive. Everything can beinstalled from floppy drives witht eh help of the internet. YOu really can not even do that with linux anymore.Bsd another nix derivative has been around longer that linux by ten years, but it has stayed up to date for th most part. Having worked as a tech in a school system , I can not tell you how much perfecty good equipment gone to auction to be sold for pennies on the dollar. Waste of taxpayer monies.

Those old computers do have value. Everyone wants to have their own webserver and or want to learn how one works. You can do that without spending much just with what someone might have int heir closet. They will probably be happy to get rid of it. Just like the school systems have done. If they only knew. If you let out the secret of what you want to do, you may not get the system. Just let them know you plan for a recycling.

you will need a computer with 128 meg ram (64 meg if no gui) form on of the following cpu’s.

All CPU chips compatible with the Intel 80386 (i386) architecture, except for the 80386 itself, are supported:

80486 (DX/DX2/DX4)
Intel Pentium/Pentium-MMX
Intel Pentium Pro/II/III/Celeron/Xeon
Intel Pentium 4/D
Intel Pentium M
Intel Core
Intel Core 2 (Also see OpenBSD/amd64 for 64-bit support)
Intel Atom
AMD 5×86
AMD K5/K6/K6-2/K6-3
AMD Athlon/Duron/Sempron
AMD Athlon 64/Opteron/Turion/Phenom (Also see OpenBSD/amd64 for 64-bit support)
Cyrix MediaGX/M1/M2
Cyrix 6×86
VIA C3/C7
Rise mP6
IDT WinChip and C3
NexGen 586
NS Geode GX1 and M1
AMD Geode GX/LX/NX

You will also need a floppy drive, network card, and a hard drive of several gigs.

Let’s get started.

Note: I have not tried this with a 486, but I have done this with a Intel Pentium 1.
Screenshot from 2012-12-21 05:39:44.png
Step 1
Preparing the media.
You will need access to a sytem that can format and prepare floppy disks. In fact you will need just three floppy disks to get going. You will need to download the images for an openbsd mirror site. (http://www.openbsd.org/ftp.html) will get you to a site where you can download the floppy images. For that old pentium 1 you could usehttp://mirror.esc7.net/pub/OpenBSD/5.2/i386/ .From the site you need to get or download the following three images:

floppy52.fs
floppyB52.fs
floppyC52.fs

You will want to format 3 1.44 meg floppies in a 1.44 meg drive to make sure they are good.

$ sudo fdformat /dev/fd0

Once you have the disks properly formatted, you will want to copy each of the images tot he three separate disks,

Take a floppy and label it boot disk then oput it in the drive.then use the command:

$ sudo dd if floppy52.fs of=/dev/fd0

Remove the floppy and set it aside. Take a floppy and label it B52 then oput it in the drive.then use the command:

$ sudo dd if floppyB52.fs of=/dev/fd0

Remove the floppy and set it aside. Take a floppy and label it B52 then oput it in the drive.then use the command:

$ sudo dd if floppyC52.fs of=/dev/fd0

Removed the disk and set it aside. Keep the three disks together for use as installation media in the next step.

Step 2: The simple install.
4.5 – Performing a simple install
OpenBSD’s new installer is designed to install and configure OpenBSD in a very usable default configuration with very little user intervention. In fact, you can often just hit ENTER a number of times to get a good OpenBSD install, moving your hands to the rest of the keyboard only to enter the root password.

The installer will create a partitioning plan based on the size of your hard disk. While this will NOT be a perfect layout for all people, it provides a good starting point and a good overall strategy for figuring out what you need.

We will start with a very simple install, with brief discussions of the options provided, and using the magic of hypertext links, allow you to read more on the topics that interest you and explore your options.

Installation notes for each platform are on the install CDs and FTP servers, in the file INSTALL., where is your platform, for instance, i386.

4.5.1 – Starting the install
Whatever your means of booting is, it is now time to use it. During the boot process, the kernel and all of the programs used to install OpenBSD are loaded into memory. Once the install kernel is booted, the boot media is no longer needed, everything runs from the RAM disk. You can actually remove the CD or floppy you booted from at this point, assuming you don’t need the CD for installation files.

At almost any point during the OpenBSD install process, you can terminate the current install attempt by hitting CTRL-C and can restart it without rebooting by running install at the shell prompt. You can also enter a “!” at most places in the installation to get to a shell prompt, then exit the shell to return to the installer.

When your boot is successful, you will see a lot of text messages scroll by. This text, on many architectures in white on blue, is the dmesg, the kernel telling you what devices have been found and how they are hooked to other devices. A copy of this text is saved as /var/run/dmesg.boot.

Then, you will see the following:


root on rd0a swap on rd0b dump on rd0b
erase ^?, werase ^W, kill ^U, intr ^C, status ^T

Welcome to the OpenBSD/i386 5.2 installation program.
(I)nstall, (U)pgrade or (S)hell? i

And with that, we reach our first question. You have the three options shown:

Install: Load OpenBSD onto the system, overwriting whatever may have been there. Note that it is possible to leave some partitions untouched in this process, such as a /home, but otherwise, assume everything else is overwritten.
Upgrade: Install a new set of install files on this machine, but do not overwrite any configuration information, user data, or additional programs. No disk formatting is done, nor are the /etc or /var directories overwritten. A few important notes:
You will not be given the option of installing the etc52.tgz file. After the install, you will have to manually merge the changes of etc52.tgz into your system before you can expect it to be fully functional. This is an important step which must be done, as otherwise certain key services (such as pf(4)) may not start.
The Upgrade process is not designed to skip releases! While this will often work, it is not supported. For OpenBSD 5.2, upgrading 5.1 to 5.2 is the only supported upgrade. If you have to upgrade from an older version, upgrade to intermediate versions first, or if the system is very out-of-date, consider a complete reinstall.
More information on upgrading between releases can be found in the OpenBSD Upgrade Guide 5.2.
Shell: Sometimes, you need to perform repairs or maintenance to a system which will not (or should not) boot to a normal kernel. This option will allow you to do maintenance to the system. A number of important utilities are available on the boot media.

We are assuming you are choosing “(I)nstall” here.

4.5.2 – The Install Questions
Now we start getting the questions that will define how the system is set up. You will note that in most cases, all the questions are asked up front, then the installation takes place. If you have a slow computer or a slow Internet connection, you will be able to answer these questions, walk away, come back later and only have to reboot the system to complete the install.

At any prompt except password prompts you can escape to a shell by
typing ‘!’. Default answers are shown in []’s and are selected by
pressing RETURN. You can exit this program at any time by pressing
Control-C, but this can leave your system in an inconsistent state.

Choose your keyboard layout (‘?’ or ‘L’ for list) [default] Enter

In most cases, the default keyboard layout (or terminal type if a serial console install is being done) is appropriate; however don’t just take the default, respond appropriately.

System hostname? (short form, e.g. ‘foo’) puffy

This value, along with the DNS domain name (specified below), will be saved in the file /etc/myname, which is used during normal boot to set the hostname of the system. If you do not set the domain name of the system, the default value of ‘my.domain’ will be used.

Available network interfaces are: fxp0 vlan0.
Which one do you wish to configure? (or ‘done’) [fxp0] Enter

vlan0 is the VLAN virtual interface. For our purposes here, we are going to ignore this option and stick to the physical interfaces. If you have multiple physical interfaces, they will be listed here. Note that they are identified by driver name, not generic Ethernet devices. In this case, “fxp0” refers to the first device using the fxp(4) driver, fxp1 would be the second device, etc. More on device naming is in FAQ 6.

After selecting the device you wish to configure, you will now configure it. In many cases, you will want to configure it using DHCP:

IPv4 address for fxp0? (or ‘dhcp’ or ‘none’) [dhcp] Enter
Issuing hostname-associated DHCP request for fxp0.
DHCPDISCOVER on fxp0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 1
DHCPOFFER from 192.168.1.250 (08:00:20:94:0b:c8)
DHCPREQUEST on fxp0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
DHCPACK from 192.168.1.250 (08:00:20:94:0b:c8)
bound to 192.168.1.199 — renewal in 43200 seconds.

DHCP will configure the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, DNS domain name and DNS servers. If you are not using DHCP, you will need to specify all these things manually; see the more detailed discussion below.

If you have any IPv6 configuration to do or there are other interfaces to configure (or you don’t like how you configured the previous one), you can do that now, but in our case, we are done:

IPv6 address for fxp0? (or ‘rtsol’ or ‘none’) [none] Enter
Available network interfaces are: fxp0 vlan0.
Which one do you wish to configure? (or ‘done’) [done] Enter
Using DNS domainname example.org
Using DNS nameservers at 192.168.1.252
Do you want to do any manual network configuration? [no] Enter

If you answer “yes” to the “manual network configuration” question, you will be placed at a shell prompt, where you can configure anything else that needs configuration, then type “exit” to return back to the install program.

Password for root account? (will not echo) PaSsWoRd
Password for root account? (again) PaSsWoRd

Use a secure password for the root account. Remember, on the Internet, they ARE out to get into your computer, and they will be trying lots of common passwords people think are really clever.

You will later be given a chance to create an administrative account and disable remote (SSH) access to the root account, but you still want a good password on your root account.

Start sshd(8) by default? [yes] Enter

Usually, you will want sshd(8) running. If your application has no need for sshd(8), there is a small theoretical security advantage to not having it running.

Start ntpd(8) by default? [no] y
NTP server? (hostname or ‘default’) [default] Enter

You are here given an option of running OpenNTPD, OpenBSD’s NTP implementation. OpenNTPD is a low-impact way of keeping your computer’s clock accurately synchronized. The default configuration, using pool.ntp.org, uses a large number of free-access time servers around the world.

One reason you may NOT want to run ntpd(8) is if you are running a dual-boot system mostly using another OS which doesn’t use a GMT-set hardware clock, as you wouldn’t want OpenBSD altering the time for your other OS.

Do you expect to run the X Window System? [yes] Enter

Not all platforms will ask if you expect to run X, those that do require a sysctl to be set to use X. Answering “y” here will modify /etc/sysctl.conf to include the line machdep.allowaperture=1 or machdep.allowaperture=2, depending on your platform.

If you do not intend to run X on this system or are not sure, answer ‘N’ here, as you can easily change it by editing /etc/sysctl.conf and rebooting, should you need to later. There is a potential security advantage to leaving this aperture driver xf86(4) disabled, as the graphics engine on a modern video card could potentially be used to alter memory beyond the processor’s control. Note that non-graphical applications that require X libraries and utilities to run do NOT need this sysctl to be set.

Do you want the X Window System to be started by xdm(1)? [no] y

xdm(1) starts the X environment at system boot. We’d recommend doing this at install only if you are very confident that X will work on your system by default. Otherwise, configure X before setting up xdm(1).

Setup a user? (enter a lower-case loginname, or ‘no’) [no] Enter

You are being given an opportunity to create a user OTHER than root for system maintenance. This user will be a member of the “wheel” group so they can run su(1) and receive mail addressed to root. You will be prompted for a password.

Note that if you wish to create the user, enter the user’s name, not “y” or “yes”.
4.5.3 – Setting up disks
Important Note: Users with a large hard disk (larger than was commonly available when your computer was made) will want to see this section before going any further.

Laying out your disk appropriately is probably the most difficult part of an OpenBSD install.

Setting up disks in OpenBSD varies a bit between platforms. For i386, amd64, macppc, zaurus and armish, disk setup is done in two stages. First, the OpenBSD slice of the hard disk is defined using fdisk(8), then that slice is subdivided into OpenBSD partitions using disklabel(8).

Some users may be a little confused by the terminology used here. It will appear we are using the word “partition” in two different ways. This observation is correct. There are two layers of partitioning in the above OpenBSD platforms, the first, one could consider the Operating System partitioning, which is how multiple OSs on one computer mark out their own space on the disk, and the second one is how the OpenBSD partition is sub-partitioned into individual filesystems. The first layer is visible as a disk partition to DOS, Windows, and any other OS that uses this disk layout system, the second layer of partitioning is visible only to OpenBSD and those OSs which can directly read an OpenBSD filesystem.

OpenBSD’s new installer attempts to make your disk layout tasks easier by having a sane default for “general” use. Note that many people will still want to customize the default, or use their own disk layout, but new users should probably start with this configuration until they see what they need to do differently. Note that the default layout will vary depending on how large your disk system is.

For now, we’ll take the defaults on our 40G disk.

Available disks are: wd0.
Which one is the root disk? (or ‘done’) [wd0] Enter
Use DUIDs rather than device names in fstab? [yes] Enter
Disk: wd0 geometry: 5221/255/63 [40960 Megabytes]
Offset: 0 Signature: 0xAA55
Starting Ending LBA Info:
#: id C H S – C H S [ start: size ]
——————————————————————————-
0: 06 0 1 1 – 521 254 63 [ 63: 8385867 ] DOS > 32MB
1: 00 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 [ 0: 0 ] unused
2: 00 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 [ 0: 0 ] unused
3: 00 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 [ 0: 0 ] unused
Use (W)hole disk or (E)dit the MBR? [whole] Enter
Setting OpenBSD MBR partition to whole wd0…done.

Note that this disk has a pre-existing partition on it — using “whole” disk will remove it!.

Setting up the “whole” disk for OpenBSD does a number of important things:

Erases any existing partitions on the disk.
Creates an MBR and disk signature so the disk can be booted.
Creates an OpenBSD partition using the entire disk.
Sets that partition as “active”.

There are many times when you won’t want to do that, including:

You wish to retain other OS partitions.
You wish to retain “setup”, “suspend to disk”, or other system partitions.
You wish to build a multi-booting system.

Note that it is critical that a new (or never-used for booting) drive has a valid MBR, a valid signature, an OpenBSD partition, and a partition flagged as “active”. If you don’t do these things using the “Use whole disk” option, you need to make sure they get done manually.

More information on fdisk partitioning your disk below.

Now we will break up our OpenBSD fdisk partition into OpenBSD disk partitions using disklabel(8):

Setting OpenBSD MBR partition to whole wd0…done.
The auto-allocated layout for wd0 is:
# size offset fstype [fsize bsize cpg]
a: 1024.0M 64 4.2BSD 2048 16384 1 # /
b: 199.0M 2097216 swap
c: 40960.0M 0 unused
d: 2822.9M 2504768 4.2BSD 2048 16384 1 # /tmp
e: 4295.0M 8286112 4.2BSD 2048 16384 1 # /var
f: 2048.0M 17082240 4.2BSD 2048 16384 1 # /usr
g: 1024.0M 21276544 4.2BSD 2048 16384 1 # /usr/X11R6
h: 5426.7M 23373696 4.2BSD 2048 16384 1 # /usr/local
i: 1699.7M 34487520 4.2BSD 2048 16384 1 # /usr/src
j: 2048.0M 37968576 4.2BSD 2048 16384 1 # /usr/obj
k: 20367.4M 42162880 4.2BSD 2048 16384 1 # /home
Use (A)uto layout, (E)dit auto layout, or create (C)ustom layout? [a] Enter

The installer has presented us with its proposed “Auto layout” for OpenBSD partitions on our disk, which we are going to accept.

If the proposed layout is not appropriate for your needs, you can, of course, edit the default or customize it completely, more details on the disklabel partitioning below.

NOTE for re-installers: The new installer will not clear your old disklabel if you chose “(C)ustom Layout”, but you will need to re-specify each mount point using the ‘m’ option in disklabel(8).

The installer now creates those partitions and creates file systems on them using newfs(8), and mounts them for installation:

/dev/rwd0a: 1024.0MB in 2097152 sectors of 512 bytes
6 cylinder groups of 202.47MB, 12958 blocks, 25984 inodes each
/dev/rwd0k: 20367.4MB in 41712448 sectors of 512 bytes
101 cylinder groups of 202.47MB, 12958 blocks, 25984 inodes each
/dev/rwd0d: 2822.9MB in 5781344 sectors of 512 bytes
14 cylinder groups of 202.47MB, 12958 blocks, 25984 inodes each
/dev/rwd0f: 2048.0MB in 4194304 sectors of 512 bytes
11 cylinder groups of 202.47MB, 12958 blocks, 25984 inodes each
/dev/rwd0g: 1024.0MB in 2097152 sectors of 512 bytes
6 cylinder groups of 202.47MB, 12958 blocks, 25984 inodes each
/dev/rwd0h: 5426.7MB in 11113824 sectors of 512 bytes
27 cylinder groups of 202.47MB, 12958 blocks, 25984 inodes each
/dev/rwd0j: 2048.0MB in 4194304 sectors of 512 bytes
11 cylinder groups of 202.47MB, 12958 blocks, 25984 inodes each
/dev/rwd0i: 1699.7MB in 3481056 sectors of 512 bytes
9 cylinder groups of 202.47MB, 12958 blocks, 25984 inodes each
/dev/rwd0e: 4295.0MB in 8796128 sectors of 512 bytes
22 cylinder groups of 202.47MB, 12958 blocks, 25984 inodes each
/dev/wd0a on /mnt type ffs (rw, asynchronous, local)
/dev/wd0k on /mnt/home type ffs (rw, asynchronous, local, nodev, nosuid)
/dev/wd0d on /mnt/tmp type ffs (rw, asynchronous, local, nodev, nosuid)
/dev/wd0f on /mnt/usr type ffs (rw, asynchronous, local, nodev)
/dev/wd0g on /mnt/usr/X11R6 type ffs (rw, asynchronous, local, nodev)
/dev/wd0h on /mnt/usr/local type ffs (rw, asynchronous, local, nodev)
/dev/wd0j on /mnt/usr/obj type ffs (rw, asynchronous, local, nodev, nosuid)
/dev/wd0i on /mnt/usr/src type ffs (rw, asynchronous, local, nodev, nosuid)
/dev/wd0e on /mnt/var type ffs (rw, asynchronous, local, nodev, nosuid)

You will note there is a c partition we seem to have ignored. This partition is your entire hard disk; don’t attempt to alter it.

4.5.4 – Choosing installation media and file sets
Next, you will get a chance to choose your installation media. In this case, we will install from an FTP server.

Location of sets? (cd disk ftp http or ‘done’) [cd] ftp
HTTP/FTP proxy URL? (e.g. ‘http://proxy:8080&#8217;, or ‘none’) [none] Enter
Server? (hostname, list#, ‘done’ or ‘?’) [mirror.example.org] obsd.cec.mtu.edu

If you can’t remember your favorite (or any!) mirror’s location, the installer will often be able to come up with a default of a mirror which will work well for you. Otherwise, hit “?” to have a list of mirrors displayed, and select the number of a mirror that will work well for you.

Server directory? [pub/OpenBSD/5.2/i386] Enter
Login? [anonymous] Enter

The public FTP mirrors all support anonymous downloads, of course, but you may have a local machine which requires a login and password.

You can now adjust the list of file sets.

Select sets by entering a set name, a file name pattern or ‘all’. De-select
sets by prepending a ‘-‘ to the set name, file name pattern or ‘all’. Selected
sets are labelled ‘[X]’.
[X] bsd [X] etc52.tgz [X] xbase52.tgz [X] xserv52.tgz
[X] bsd.rd [X] comp52.tgz [X] xetc52.tgz
[ ] bsd.mp [X] man52.tgz [X] xshare52.tgz
[X] base52.tgz [X] game52.tgz [X] xfont52.tgz
Set name(s)? (or ‘abort’ or ‘done’) [done] Enter

At a bare minimum, you need to have a kernel (bsd), the base52.tgz and etc52.tgz file sets. Unless you know what you are doing, stick with the default sets. You can add and remove file sets using “+” and “-” chars in front of the file set name, and also use wildcards:

-comp52.tgz removes comp52.tgz
+bsd.mp adds bsd.mp
-x* removes all X components

But again, we’ll take the default. This machine is a single-processor system, so bsd.mp is not installed, but everything else is. If it could later be upgraded to a multi-processor system, you might want to install bsd.mp as well.

And now, we start our install! This is the point at which you might want to come back later if you have a slow computer or Internet connection, though with a fast computer and local files, this process may take just a couple minutes or less!

bsd 100% |*************************************| 8810 KB 00:05
bsd.rd 100% |*************************************| 6271 KB 00:03
base52.tgz 100% |*************************************| 55415 KB 00:26
etc52.tgz 100% |*************************************| 519 KB 00:00
comp52.tgz 100% |*************************************| 60165 KB 00:28
man52.tgz 100% |*************************************| 9497 KB 00:06
game52.tgz 100% |*************************************| 2567 KB 00:02
xbase52.tgz 100% |*************************************| 11028 KB 00:06
xetc52.tgz 100% |*************************************| 63902 00:00
xshare52.tgz 100% |*************************************| 4511 KB 00:04
xfont52.tgz 100% |*************************************| 38869 KB 00:17
xserv52.tgz 100% |*************************************| 25113 KB 00:15
Location of sets? (cd disk ftp http or ‘done’) [done] Enter

Yes, it is asking us again where we wish to install things from. This is so either missed, forgotten or failed file sets can be re-installed, and also so custom file sets can be installed.

Again, we just take the default, we are done installing files

What timezone are you in? (‘?’ for list) [Canada/Mountain] US/Michigan

OpenBSD assumes your computer’s real-time clock (RTC) is set to GMT, but you also have to specify what time zone you are in. There may be several valid answers for your physical location. Hitting “?” at the prompt will help guide you to finding a valid time zone name.

Note that the installer will quite often guess correctly for your time zone, and you can then just hit “Enter”.

If you have activated OpenNTPD above, you will likely get a prompt similar to this:

Time appears wrong. Set to ‘Thu Nov 1 19:50:15 EDT 2012’? [yes] Enter

This will set your computer’s time accurately.

More on setting the time zone here.

Saving configuration files…done.
Generating initial host.random file…done.
Making all device nodes…done.

CONGRATULATIONS! Your OpenBSD install has been successfully completed!
To boot the new system, enter ‘reboot’ at the command prompt.
When you login to your new system the first time, please read your mail
using the ‘mail’ command.

#

4.5.5 – First boot!
OpenBSD is now installed on your system and ready for its first boot, but before you do…

Before you reboot
At this point, your system is installed and ready to be rebooted and configured for service. Before doing this, however, it would be wise to check out the Errata page to see if there are any bugs that would immediately impact you.
After you reboot
On your first boot, SSH keys will be generated. On modern computers, this will take a few seconds, you may not even notice it happening. On older systems, it may take many minutes, potentially even an hour or more for really slow systems.

Note: links2 s/b links
Step 3: First login and adding packages.
since we enabled ssh during the install, we can remotely access the system. Makes it easier to document what is done. One of the options for installing te software was http (aka via the net) we chose to use the install cdrom. If we had used http, then the system would now where to get the new software from. Since we do not have a location, we need to add one.

eddie@oedt01:~$ ssh root@192.168.1.123
root@192.168.1.123’s password:
OpenBSD 5.2 (GENERIC) #278: Wed Aug 1 10:04:16 MDT 2012

Welcome to OpenBSD: The proactively secure Unix-like operating system.

Please use the sendbug(1) utility to report bugs in the system.
Before reporting a bug, please try to reproduce it with the latest
version of the code. With bug reports, please try to ensure that
enough information to reproduce the problem is enclosed, and if a
known fix for it exists, include that as well.

# pkg_add nano sudo links2 mc nano
Can’t find nano
Can’t find sudo
Can’t find links2
Can’t find mc
Can’t find nano
# export PKG_PATH=ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/5.2/packages/i386/

You will want to change the version of openbsd and architecture to your cpu’s type

(example: $ export PKG_PATH=ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/4.0/packages/amd64/ )
We used version 5.2 and for the old i386 hardware.

The you can start adding packages. I wanted to add packages that made it easier to be at home like linux.

# pkg_add nano sudo links2 mc nano
Can’t find nano
Can’t find sudo
Can’t find links2
Can’t find mc
Can’t find nano
# export PKG_PATH=ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/5.2/packages/i386/
# pkg_add nano sudo links2 mc nano
nano-2.2.6:libiconv-1.14: ok
nano-2.2.6:gettext-0.18.1p3: ok
nano-2.2.6: ok
Can’t find sudo
Can’t find links2
mc-4.8.1.1:zip-3.0: ok
mc-4.8.1.1:libffi-3.0.9: ok
mc-4.8.1.1:libelf-0.8.13p1: ok
mc-4.8.1.1:bzip2-1.0.6: ok
mc-4.8.1.1:python-2.7.3p0: ok
mc-4.8.1.1:pcre-8.30: ok
mc-4.8.1.1:glib2-2.32.4: ok
mc-4.8.1.1:unzip-6.0p0: ok
mc-4.8.1.1:oniguruma-5.9.2: ok
mc-4.8.1.1:png-1.5.10: ok
mc-4.8.1.1:libslang-2.2.4: ok
mc-4.8.1.1: ok
Look in /usr/local/share/doc/pkg-readmes for extra documentation.
— +python-2.7.3p0 ——————-
If you want to use this package as your default system python, as root
create symbolic links like so (overwriting any previous default):
ln -sf /usr/local/bin/python2.7 /usr/local/bin/python
ln -sf /usr/local/bin/python2.7-2to3 /usr/local/bin/2to3
ln -sf /usr/local/bin/python2.7-config /usr/local/bin/python-config
ln -sf /usr/local/bin/pydoc2.7 /usr/local/bin/pydoc

Obviously some of the packages were nmot there. Glad it added pyuthon as we can use it to do some programming later. The way you talk with the computer is to type in a shell. I wanted to use bash so let’s install it and a couple of other things. for example we may want to compile some C programs and also get to the net via the command line.
# pkg_add nano sudo links bash gcc
Can’t find sudo
links-1.03: ok
bash-4.2.36: ok
Ambiguous: choose package for gcc
a 0:
1: gcc-3.3.6p3v0
2: gcc-4.2.4p9v0
3: gcc-4.6.3p3
4: gcc-4.7.1
Your choice: 4
gcc-4.7.1:gmp-5.0.2p0: ok
gcc-4.7.1:mpfr-3.1.0.3: ok
gcc-4.7.1:libmpc-0.9p0: ok
gcc-4.7.1: ok
#

Now we need to make bash the default shell:

# chsh -s /usr/local/bin/bash

Step 4: Set up a user.
Normally you want not want to log in as root from another system, besides we want to have our own account and a place other than root to store our files.

# adduser
Use option “-silent” if you don’t want to see all warnings and questions.

Reading /etc/shells
Check /etc/master.passwd
Check /etc/group

Ok, let’s go.
Don’t worry about mistakes. There will be a chance later to correct any input.
Enter username []: eddie
Enter full name []:
Enter shell bash csh ksh nologin sh [bash]:
Uid [1000]:
Login group eddie [eddie]:
Login group is “eddie”. Invite eddie into other groups: guest no
[no]:
Login class authpf bgpd daemon default staff [default]:
Enter password []:
Enter password again []:

Name: eddie
Password: ****
Fullname: eddie
Uid: 1000
Gid: 1000 (eddie)
Groups: eddie
Login Class: default
HOME: /home/eddie/eddie
Shell: /usr/local/bin/bash
OK? (y/n) [y]:
Added user “eddie”
Copy files from /etc/skel to /home/eddie/eddie
Add another user? (y/n) [y]: n
Goodbye!
#

We also want eddie to be able to do at least some root powers so we will need to edit the /etc/sudoers file. We will add eddie under the root entry.

eddie ALL=(ALL) SETENV: ALL

# $OpenBSD: sudoers,v 1.25 2009/10/26 19:28:26 millert Exp $
#
# sudoers file.
#
# This file MUST be edited with the ‘visudo’ command as root.
# Failure to use ‘visudo’ may result in syntax or file permission errors
# that prevent sudo from running.
#
# See the sudoers man page for the details on how to write a sudoers file.
#

# Host alias specification

# User alias specification

# Cmnd alias specification

# Defaults specification
Defaults env_keep +=”DESTDIR DISTDIR EDITOR FETCH_CMD FLAVOR FTPMODE GROUP MAKE”
Defaults env_keep +=”MAKECONF MULTI_PACKAGES NOMAN OKAY_FILES OWNER PKG_CACHE”
Defaults env_keep +=”PKG_DBDIR PKG_DESTDIR PKG_PATH PKG_TMPDIR PORTSDIR”
Defaults env_keep +=”RELEASEDIR SHARED_ONLY SSH_AUTH_SOCK SUBPACKAGE VISUAL”
Defaults env_keep +=”WRKOBJDIR”

# Uncomment to disable the lecture the first time you run sudo
#Defaults !lecture

# Uncomment to preserve the environment for users in group wheel
#Defaults:%wheel !env_reset

# Runas alias specification

# User privilege specification
root ALL=(ALL) SETENV: ALL
eddie ALL=(ALL) SETENV: ALL

# Uncomment to allow people in group wheel to run all commands
# and set environment variables.
# %wheel ALL=(ALL) SETENV: ALL

# Same thing without a password
# %wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: SETENV: ALL

# Samples
# %users ALL=/sbin/mount /cdrom,/sbin/umount /cdrom
# %users localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now

More to come later….

P000-256-256-411-f1016

——————————————————-

Went to the parts closet and ended up putting 5 p1 computers back to work. Lost the myth tv server and a thin client server. Motherboards bit the dust. Do not know whether that is a fair trade. Scavengened lots of parts that went into the parts closet.

——————————————————

Got an Android tablet for xmas. Lots of new stuff to learn. So ,much swiping though. Almost easier to use a command line./ Also the touchpad did not like my server web pages. Lots of code to rewrite. Ugh!

——————————————————

Put dos on an old 486 laptop with 12k of ram no hd.  be used as a rocket laucher.  lights on represents the laptop can controld the parallel port via qbasic.

P000-256-267-481-f1016

—————————————————–

Took one of the 91’s with dos and tried to recover and xbox drive. No go. Why a company would want to lock out the user of his own equiment boggles my mind. Anohter reason not to deal with proprietary equipment.

——————————————————————————————–.

Do not forget to update your equipment!

P000-256-265-470-f1016

———————————————————————————————

Whole wheat banana bread and pudding from scratch. None of that boxed mix.

P000-296-290-575-d7027

Good day.

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