When does your warranty expire?

Leave a comment

Chit chat



$ grep -l -e “searchterm” *just get the file names

Use sudo without having to retype the command


Got a bunch off goodies to play with for the Arduino. wifi, ethernet, and ping sensors.

We recommend not using companies that are removing confederate merchandise from their shelves.

Screenshot from 2015-06-25 17:30:17

Basis for a new project ust a touchpad plus an rpi.

Screenshot from 2015-06-28 15:19:57



Screenshot from 2015-06-29 00:49:13

Screenshot from 2015-06-29 00:12:01

Screenshot from 2015-06-28 23:38:19


Power supplies either home made or commercial switching. Home made can be made iwht parts around the shop or local electronics store. Tendds to run hot and  not that efficent. Switching power supplies can be ought dirt cheap, use less electricity and are the most efficient.

Screenshot from 2015-06-27 04:04:18

Another circuit.



Experimental code fir the 4 prong ping detector (vs the 3 ping from Paralax)

Screenshot from 2015-06-29 16:01:58

/* HC-SR04 Sensor

   This sketch reads a HC-SR04 ultrasonic rangefinder and returns the
   distance to the closest object in range. To do this, it sends a pulse
   to the sensor to initiate a reading, then listens for a pulse
   to return.  The length of the returning pulse is proportional to
   the distance of the object from the sensor.

   The circuit:
	* VCC connection of the sensor attached to +5V
	* GND connection of the sensor attached to ground
	* TRIG connection of the sensor attached to digital pin 2
	* ECHO connection of the sensor attached to digital pin 4

   Original code for Ping))) example was created by David A. Mellis
   Adapted for HC-SR04 by Tautvidas Sipavicius

   This example code is in the public domain.

const int trigPin = 2;
const int echoPin = 4;

void setup() {
  // initialize serial communication:

void loop()
  // establish variables for duration of the ping,
  // and the distance result in inches and centimeters:
  long duration, inches, cm;

  // The sensor is triggered by a HIGH pulse of 10 or more microseconds.
  // Give a short LOW pulse beforehand to ensure a clean HIGH pulse:
  pinMode(trigPin, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
  digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);

  // Read the signal from the sensor: a HIGH pulse whose
  // duration is the time (in microseconds) from the sending
  // of the ping to the reception of its echo off of an object.
  pinMode(echoPin, INPUT);
  duration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH);

  // convert the time into a distance
  inches = microsecondsToInches(duration);
  cm = microsecondsToCentimeters(duration);

  Serial.print("in, ");


long microsecondsToInches(long microseconds)
  // According to Parallax's datasheet for the PING))), there are
  // 73.746 microseconds per inch (i.e. sound travels at 1130 feet per
  // second).  This gives the distance travelled by the ping, outbound
  // and return, so we divide by 2 to get the distance of the obstacle.
  // See: http://www.parallax.com/dl/docs/prod/acc/28015-PING-v1.3.pdf
  return microseconds / 74 / 2;

long microsecondsToCentimeters(long microseconds)
  // The speed of sound is 340 m/s or 29 microseconds per centimeter.
  // The ping travels out and back, so to find the distance of the
  // object we take half of the distance travelled.
  return microseconds / 29 / 2;


Simple Arduino emf detector. (bug detector?) Lamp[ seems to blink faster and brighter around magnetic fields/

Screenshot from 2015-06-27 16:05:58

int inPin = 5;             // analog 5
int val = 0;                 // where to store info from analog 5
int pin11 = 11;         // output of red led

void setup() {



void loop() {

val = analogRead(inPin);                    // reads in the values from analog 5 and
//assigns them to val
if(val >= 1){

val = constrain(val, 1, 100);               // mess with these values
val = map(val, 1, 100, 1, 255);        // to change the response distance of the device
analogWrite(pin11, val);                    // *note also messing with the resistor should change
// the sensitivity
}else{                                                     // analogWrite(pin11, val); just tuns on the led with
// the intensity of the variable val
analogWrite(pin11, 0);                     // the else statement is just telling the microcontroller
// to turn off the light if there is no EMF detected

Serial.println(val);                                // use output to aid in calibrating



When it comes to home automation, you could use any number of systems such as a off the shelf turnkey solution such as Insteon.Check with your hardware store for more details. You could build it yourself. Unless you are experienced at it, I would let a professional do it, if for no other reason of safety to yourself and others.  If you do do it yourself, you will have to write the software to make it all happen. Though most of it may not be that hard, it can be daunting to the inexperienced. Again get a professional and a mentor. Also any drawings in this article are oversimplified and not to be used in actual systems.  What to do first? You want to make a plan of what you want to do including any budget considerations. (What is it going to cost?)

Home Automation – Requirements ChecklistFunctional Areas:
Standalone time-based controllers
Remote infrared or wireless (RF) controllers
Local PC only
Local PC w/Internet access enabled
Optional telephone interface for status and control
    Security & Monitoring
Alarm System Integration
Standalone system with outputs
Standalone system with auxiliary inputs/outputs
Custom Alarm System
Motion detectors (people or vehicles)
Security cameras (archive motion triggered video clips)
Zone intrusion detectors (infrared)
Local siren alarm
Alerts (pager or email or dial-out)
Door/Window/Gate open sensor
Barking dog deterrent
Flood lightsActivity Monitoring
Cameras to monitor children or pets
Pet feeders, pet doors, automatic cleaners, pet containment
Electronic door latches
Activity logs
Disaster Recovery
Sensors: water level, extreme temperatures, wind, smoke, rain
Alerts (pager or email or emergency dial-out)Scene Lighting
Everyday after dark lighting scheme
Night time pathway lighting
Event lighting scenes (parties, dining, mood settings)
Dusk/Dawn sensor or calculation from latitude & longitude
Motion triggered lights (i.e. front porch, backyard, interior rooms)
Vacation schedule after dark lighting scheme with auto-variance
    Home Entertainment (A/V) Controls
Room lighting: control drapes, blinds, dimmers
Device power up sequence and configuration
Play selection (CD, DVD, VHS, Cable, Satellite, Media PC)
Channel/volume control
DVD/VCR/DVR control (play, pause, stop rewind, fast forward, eject)
    General control
        Single control –simplified (macro commands)
Remote programming control from the Internet (e.g. TIVO or other DVR)
Home HVAC Controls
Heating and cooling based on single/multiple internal thermostats
Set Heating/Cooling temperature targets via program
Control HVAC mode (Auto, Heating, Cooling, Off)
Ceiling fan controls
Send status on demand or periodic reports
Monitor pool/spa water temperature
Control window shades to lower room temperatureSecurity
        Surveillance Cameras
Stationary cameras with video cable plugs into TV or computer webcam
Pan/Tilt/Zoom (PTZ) cameras (hard-wired or wireless)
Continuous recording of video capture on motion detection
Remote viewing from the Internet (live stream or capture files)
Sprinkler controls (rain detection shut off)
Integrate custom systems (requires computer interface)
Appliance controls (electrical water heater, other)
Integrated Pool/Spa controls
It is apparent, you will need to do some research, not only potential products but, doing some price research. We will go into the above in more detail at a later time.

Now you do not have to implement everything, Maybe even one item is all you need. Now that we have that out of the way, Lets go back to the discussion.  Last time we said that home automation is basically being able to turn something on or off remotely. Let us refine that a little bit. We actually need something to be controlled, a device to do the controlling, and an interface to oversee the controlling.

Something to be controlled can be digital such as on or off like a light switch. That is pretty easy. In some cases though, we need to be able to adjust a device to a certain level and that is analog sort of like measuring with a ruler, light dimmer switch or even with a thermometer.

We need a way to control devices based on a pre-setup instructions which may or many not be dependent on the time of day or feedback from sensor devices,  We can send a signal to turn on an electronic switch as if you just simply turned on light switch or we could use an electronic valve like on a water faucet to adjust those things that are analog.  For example you may want to dim or brighten a lamp. We use a stepper motor that can turn in increments in two directions to adjust a light dimmer switch. This would be as if you were turning the knob on the dimmer. Of course you will want a light sensor to get feedback on how the lamp is doing.


If you build it yourself, you can use everything from a microcontroller such as the Arduino to a full fledged computer. The system will need to be able to output the current status and let you change it if need be. For a computer you will need to have some kind of web server installed. The Arduino has a simple interface to be able to ouput to the web if the ethernet shield is attached.


So now you have remote control via a simple web page. Next time we will spend some time in the big long list at the start of the article.


Have not tested this, so try at your own risk.



From Hackaday (http://hackaday.io/project/6258) Single chip  usb temperature sensor.
I  (the Hackaday author) created this project because I wanted to learn about PIC microcontrollers and the USB protocol. I also wanted to see how simple I could make a USB device. I’ve gotten it down to two components: a PIC16F1455 microcontroller and the USB connector. The microcontroller acts as a USB serial device and will send the temperature as an ASCII string once per second.

The PIC16F1455 is a relatively new microcontroller that can do USB without an external crystal. It also has internal pull-up resistors for the USB data lines. These things mean no extra hardware is necessary for USB communication.
I needed something useful to send over USB and I noticed that the PIC16F1455 has a Temperature Indicator Module. This peripheral will let you read the operating temperature of the silicon die over the ADC. It’s not terribly accurate, but the silicon die temperature will be about equal to the outside temperature.

I carefully soldered a male USB Type A connector to the PIC16F1455’s Vdd, Vss, D+, and D- pins. Then, using the M-Stack USB Stack from Signal 11, I wrote a program to enumerate the PIC16F1455 as a USB CDC serial device and send the temperature in ADC counts as an ASCII string at 1 Hz.
From the computer side, it’s easy to connect to the USB temperature data logger like any other serial device, parse the incoming strings, and save the data to a file with a timestamp.
The last step is to map the ADC counts to a temperature scale. Microchip has an application note AN1333 with some equations. However, for a constant Vdd, the scale is pretty linear so it’s easiest to record the ADC count at two known temperatures and interpolate between them.

Looks pretty straight forward.

Some code links:



Try this at your own risk.

From the kodi wiki:

Follow this simple procedure:

  1. Open the receiver’s plastic case using a small screw driver. Carefully pry around the case.
  2. Solder the wire to the receiver using the picture below
  • Note: This might damage the casing of the dongle.

1 Color Coded Pinout

Xbox-dvd-pinout thumb.jpg

  • If you’re using a standard USB cable you should just be able to match the colors and solder away, but to be sure check your cable with a continuity tester according to the USB spec provided here.
  1. Red = Positive Power (+5V DC)
  2. White = Data –
  3. Green = Data +
  4. Yellow = Unused
  5. Black = Ground (0V DC)

Normal usb connections:

Pin Name Cable color Description
1 VCC Red +5 VDC
2 D- White Data –
3 D+ Green Data +
4 GND Black Ground


2 Lirc Config


#Chosen Remote Control
REMOTE_MODULES="lirc_atiusb lirc_dev"

#Chosen IR Transmitter

#Enable lircd

#Don't start lircmd even if there seems to be a good config file

#Try to load appropriate kernel modules

# Default configuration files for your hardware if any

#Forcing noninteractive reconfiguration
#If lirc is to be reconfigured by an external application
#that doesn't have a debconf frontend available, the noninteractive
#frontend can be invoked and set to parse REMOTE and TRANSMITTER
#It will then populate all other variables without any user input
#If you would like to configure lirc via standard methods, be sure
#to leave this set to "false"


# brand: Microsoft Xbox DVD Receiever (also works with generic)
# remote control: Xbox remote or any remote using RCA DVD player codes

begin remote

name XboxDVDDongle
bits 8
eps 30
aeps 100

one 0 0
zero 0 0
gap 163983
toggle_bit_mask 0x0

begin codes
UP 0xA6
1 0xCE
2 0xCD
3 0xCC
4 0xCB
5 0xCA
6 0xC9
7 0xC8
8 0xC7
9 0xC6
0 0xCF
end codes
end remote

If using the Xbox DVD IR dongle, add this line to the bottom of /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf:

blacklist xpad


 The Sickmods XERC 2 XE works really well with an HTPC and the Xbox DVD dongle. It handles power-off and power-on via your remote. Here are some installation instructions for that.


This may not work with all calculators. Here is an interesting way to count footsteps and estimate how far you have walked.You need a cheap calculator, some foam or sponge, glue, foil, cellophane tape, and 2 long wires.

Then you will want to make a switch. To do tha, drilll or punch a hole in the sponge for the to the bottom.  Glue the foil to the top and bottom of the sponge.  The two foil pieces should not be touching. Connect the wires separately to each foiled surface.

Open up the calculator and connect each of the other wire ends to the top and bottom contacts of the “equals” aka = button. Put a piece of cellophane tape between the contract so that they do not connect. Close the calculator and make sure everything works normally. you would have to press the switch together for the = sign to work.  Attach the switch to the bottom of the shoe.

Now enter “1 + 1″ into the calculator. Start waking and you will see the count begin to rise as you walk. When you are finished walking multiply the steps to the length of your stride and you will have your distanced walked.


Could see servos being used with this.



Zuupa di trippa. A stomach full of goodness.


Good day.

Ides of june.

Leave a comment

Chit chat


Thinking of B. B. King as he as sort of a hero to me.

The cable I ordered form china came in a month early.

Time for Mercury to settle down and let things get better.

If If you are coding just to code, consider other opportunities There is a lot more to it than just slinging code unless you are just doing it for your own enjoyment. To be honest, if you go to work for a company you will not be choosing what language you use, My first real job was s a maintenance programmer. They had one programming language I was familiar with, but had to learn a completely new language to do my job. Fortunately, having used several languages, I was able to adapt. Just a grain of salt.

Regretfully downloading mswin 2 in base 1.  Taking forever. Could download and install a linux desktop and or server in a fraction of the time spent.  #MSWindows version 2
Cheap sorter box

 When is the best time to get a free computer? When marriages or couples break apart and when MSWindows users think they need a new machine because the operating system requires beefier hardware. Acquired this old P3 for free from a couple breakup. Wiped the drive and put Linux on it. #mswindows #linux #repurpose #computer


Remember the days of modems and bulletin boards. Nostalgia: an old bbs program. (minus the support files)

COMMON SHARED Car.ret, Car.ret$, Lfeed, Lfeed$, Mod.dem, Console
DECLARE SUB delay (Secs!)
DECLARE SUB Lout (l$, Cr!)
CONST False = 0
CONST True = -1
' ****************************************************************************
' eddiedbbs version 0.00001
' main.loop written by computothought
' some data input routines borrowed from the dumbbs program
' last update 02/06/95
GOSUB housekeeping
GOSUB The.main.loop
GOSUB end.of.job
' *****************************************************************************
' Subroutines
' -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
done = 0
Cdmask = &H80
Carrier = 0
'Status ports should be Com1 = 3fe and Com2 = 2fe (?f8+6)
Rs232.port = &H3FE: '&H3F8 + 6
Mod.dem = 1
Console = 2
Port$ = "COM1:"
Baud$ = "300,"
Flow$ = "N,8,1": ',DS0"
Minute = 60
Char.wait.time = 4 * Minute
Char.grace.time = 1 * Minute
Lin.length = 40
Q$ = CHR$(34)
Bell$ = CHR$(7)
Car.ret = 13
Car.ret$ = CHR$(Car.ret)
Lfeed = 10
Lfeed$ = CHR$(Lfeed)
' ------------------------------------------------
' select.baud - select the baud rate
Com.spec$ = Port$ + Baud$ + Flow$
' ----------------------------------------------
' open communication lines
OPEN Com.spec$ FOR RANDOM AS #Mod.dem
GOSUB pause
OPEN "scrn:" FOR OUTPUT AS #Console
' ---------------------------------------------
' Restart the work log file
OPEN "append", #5, "worklog"
PRINT #5, "Start of job", TIME$, DATE$
' ------------------------------------------------
' gchar - get a character
Char.timeout = False
Charet = 0
Ceddie$ = INPUT$(1, #Mod.dem)
C = ASC(Ceddie$)
PRINT #Mod.dem, CHR$(C);
IF C <> 8 THEN
PRINT #Console, CHR$(C);
PRINT #Console, CHR$(29);
Charet = 1
GOSUB Carchek
LOOP UNTIL TIMER > T + Char.wait.time OR Charet = 1 OR Carrier = False
IF TIMER > T + Char.wait.time THEN
a$ = Car.ret$ + Lfeed$ + Bell$ + Bell$
a$ = a$ + "This BBS will hang up if you don't press a key."
CALL Lout(a$, True)
Violation = 2
Char.timeout = True
C = 256
' ----------------------------------------------------
' gline - get a line
In.line$ = ""
GOSUB Clear.garbage
CASE IS > 255, Car.ret
CASE 29, 8
In.line$ = LEFT$(In.line$, LEN(In.line$) - 1)
In.line$ = In.line$ + CHR$(C)
LOOP UNTIL LEN(In.line$) > Lin.length OR (C = Car.ret AND LEN(In.line$) > 0) OR C > 255 OR Carrier = False
' -------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Dtrlow
PRINT #Mod.dem, "ATH0"
GOSUB pause
PRINT #Mod.dem, "ATZ"
GOSUB pause
' --------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Dtrhi
PRINT #Mod.dem, "ATE0M0S0=1&C1"
GOSUB pause
' ----------------------------------------------------------
' file download
Dload.item$ = ""
DO WHILE UCASE$(Dload.item$) <> "0"
Usefile$ = "dir.fil"
GOSUB File.display
GOSUB Clear.garbage
Dload.item$ = UCASE$(CHR$(C))
DO WHILE Dload.item$ <= "Z" AND Dload.item$ >= "A"
CALL Lout("Please open your buffer now, then press any key!", True)
GOSUB File.display
GOSUB Clear.garbage
Usefile$ = "\ul\dload" + CHR$(C)
GOSUB File.display
CALL Lout("Please close your buffer now, then press any key!", True)
GOSUB Clear.garbage
IF Carrier = False OR Char.timeout THEN EXIT DO
' ----------------------------------------------------------
' bulletin display
Bullet.item$ = ""
DO WHILE UCASE$(Bullet.item$) <> "Q"
Usefile$ = "poster"
GOSUB File.display
CALL Lout("Enter choice: ", False)
GOSUB Clear.garbage
Bullet.item$ = UCASE$(CHR$(C))
CALL Lout(" ", True)
DO WHILE C > 48 AND C < 57
Usefile$ = Usefile$ + Bullet.item$
GOSUB File.display
C = 256
IF Carrier = False OR Char.timeout THEN EXIT DO
' ----------------------------------------------------------
' new user routine
Usefile$ = "newuser"
GOSUB File.display
CALL Lout("Please enter a unique password: ", False)
CALL Lout("", True)
Pass.in$ = In.line$
KILL "userfile.old"
NAME "userfile" AS "userfile.old"
OPEN "O", #6, "userfile"
Status = 4
PRINT #6, Q$; Log.name$; Q$; ","; Q$; Pass.in$; Q$; ","; Status; ","; Q$; Time.in$; Q$
OPEN "I", #7, "userfile.old"
OPEN "A", #8, "userfile"
INPUT #7, a$, B$, C, D$
PRINT #8, Q$; a$; Q$; ","; Q$; B$; Q$; ","; C; ","; Q$; D$; Q$
' ---------------------------------------------------------
' file.display
OPEN "I", #3, Usefile$
LINE INPUT #3, data.in$
CALL Lout(data.in$, True)
' =========================================================
' The main Loop
' This is where the 'BBS' actually begins.
GOSUB Dtrlow
LOCATE 2, 30: PRINT "eddied BBS version 0.001"
C = 256
LOCATE 3, 30
LOCATE 4, 30
PRINT "Rs232:"; INP(Rs232.port)
GOSUB Carchek
' -----------------------------------------------------
' start
GOSUB Clear.garbage
' -----------------------------------------------------
' header
Usefile$ = "prelog"
GOSUB File.display
' -----------------------------------------------------
' logon
Time.in$ = TIME$
Legal = False
CALL Lout("Please enter your name: ", False)
Log.name$ = In.line$
CALL Lout("", True)
OPEN "I", #4, "userfile"
INPUT #4, Name.in$, Pass.in$, Status, Start$
IF UCASE$(Name.in$) = UCASE$(Log.name$) OR Name.in$ = "END" THEN EXIT DO
IF Name.in$ = "END" THEN
GOSUB New.user
FOR xdummy = 1 TO 3
CALL Lout(" password: ", False)
Pass.word$ = ""
Pass.word$ = In.line$
CALL Lout("", True)
IF Pass.word$ = Pass.in$ THEN
ELSEIF ((Pass.word$ <> Pass.in$) AND (xdummy > 3)) THEN
violate = 1
GOTO Logoff
NEXT xdummy
' -----------------------------------------------------
' main
menu.item$ = ""
DO WHILE UCASE$(menu.item$) <> "G"
Usefile$ = "post2"
GOSUB File.display
CALL Lout(" ", True)
CALL Lout("Your choice: ", False)
GOSUB Clear.garbage
menu.item$ = UCASE$(CHR$(C))
CALL Lout(" ", True)
SELECT CASE menu.item$
GOSUB file.download
GOSUB bulletins
violate = 0
IF Carrier = False OR Char.timeout THEN EXIT DO
' -----------------------------------------------------
' footer
Usefile$ = "epilog"
GOSUB File.display
' -----------------------------------------------------
' pause
FOR x = 1 TO 4000
' -----------------------------------------------------
' logoff
OPEN "append", #5, "worklog"
PRINT #5, Name.in$, Pass.word$, Time.in$, TIME$, violate
a$ = "Logging off"
CALL Lout(a$, True)
a$ = "+++"
CALL Lout(a$, True)
PRINT "Turning DTR low"
GOSUB Dtrlow
CALL delay(2)
PRINT "Bringing DTR high"
CALL delay(2)
' ------------------------------------------------------
CC = (INP(Rs232.port) AND Cdmask)
IF CC = 128 THEN
Carrier = True
Carrier = False
' ------------------------------------------------------
Ceddie$ = INPUT$(1, #Mod.dem)
' ------------------------------------------------------
OPEN "append", #5, "worklog"
PRINT #5, "End of use", TIME$, DATE$
' ===========================================================================

SUB delay (Secs)
' ------------------------------------------------
' delay - wait so many seconds
delay (Secs):

SUB flush (Time)
' ----------------------------------------------------
' flush - flush buffer
Dummy$ = INPUT$(LOF(Mod.dem), #Mod.dem)

SUB Lout (l$, Cr)
' ---------------------------------------------------
' lout - line out
FOR j = 1 TO LEN(l$)
G = ASC(MID$(l$, j, 1))
PRINT #Mod.dem, CHR$(G);
PRINT #Console, CHR$(G);
PRINT #Mod.dem, Car.ret$; Lfeed$
PRINT #Console, Car.ret$;


From Wikipedia:

Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal. It is a type of modulation. Although this modulation technique can be used to encode information for transmission, its main use is to allow the control of the power supplied to electrical devices, especially to inertial loads such as motors. In addition, PWM is one of the two principal algorithms used in photovoltaic solar battery chargers,[1] the other being MPPT.

The average value of voltage (and current) fed to the load is controlled by turning the switch between supply and load on and off at a fast rate. The longer the switch is on compared to the off periods, the higher the total power supplied to the load.

The PWM switching frequency has to be much higher than what would affect the load (the device that uses the power), which is to say that the resultant waveform perceived by the load must be as smooth as possible. Typically switching has to be done several times a minute in an electric stove, 120 Hz in a lamp dimmer, from few kilohertz (kHz) to tens of kHz for a motor drive and well into the tens or hundreds of kHz in audio amplifiers and computer power supplies.

The term duty cycle describes the proportion of ‘on’ time to the regular interval or ‘period’ of time; a low duty cycle corresponds to low power, because the power is off for most of the time. Duty cycle is expressed in percent, 100% being fully on.

The main advantage of PWM is that power loss in the switching devices is very low. When a switch is off there is practically no current, and when it is on and power is being transferred to the load, there is almost no voltage drop across the switch. Power loss, being the product of voltage and current, is thus in both cases close to zero. PWM also works well with digital controls, which, because of their on/off nature, can easily set the needed duty cycle.

PWM has also been used in certain communication systems where its duty cycle has been used to convey information over a communications channel.


Most micro controllers have pwm pins on board, but you can easily generate or simulate pwm in software for systems without pwm pins. First you do not see the “1” and then you see more of it. Code compiled with freebasic fbc -lang qb [filename]

for x = 1 to 1000
    for y =1 to (1000 - x)
        locate 1,1
        ?" ";
    next y
    for a = 1 to x
        locate 1,1
    next a
next x


Here is another way using an actual led connected to the parallel port. Emu;ates the idea of the lights dimming and getting brighter.

out 888,0  turns all lights off

out 888,255  turns all lights on

for x = 1 to 50

    for y =1 to x
        locate 1,1
        rem ?"1";
        out 888,255
        for z = 1 to 500000
        next z
    next y
    for a = 1 to 50 -x
        locate 1,1
        rem ?" ";
        out 888,0
        for z = 1 to 500000
        next z
    next a
next x
out 888,0


for x = 1 to 1000
    for y =1 to (1000 - x)
        locate 1,1
        rem ?" ";
        out 888, 0
    next y
    for a = 1 to x
         locate 1,1
         rem ?"1";
         out 888,255
    next a
next x
out 888,0 


Oldie, but goodie: Batch file to slowly print out a text file. Perfect for a quickie teleprompter.

; then

cat "$file" | while read c ; do
echo "$c"
sleep .5


If this is a duplicate, oopss.


Screenshot from 2013-12-08 15:29:59.png


Screenshot from 2013-12-08 15:33:39.png



Screenshot from 2013-12-08 15:50:30.png

Love MPD. It is both a music player and an internet radio player. You can install this on a really old machine or a new arm based linux device. Just add an amp and  speakers and you have a new age stereo that can be controlled remotely..
Make your directories where you want your music to be and then copy them there if they are not already there. Now to inbstall the basic software. You have the program itself (mpd)and a command line player to test it.(mpc)

$sudo apt-get install mpd mpc.

Sure sure your stero and or speakers are attached to the sound card and they work. Now to test it. We will do it with a radio station if you do not have any music to t4est with.

$ mpc add http://relay3.slayradio.org:8000/
adding: http://relay3.slayradio.org:8000/

$ mpc play
You should hear the radio station out of your speakers now.

Now let’s edit the config file for file location and to allow the server to be accesed from other systems. Warning this is not secure, as your better off sshing into the machine to control it.

$ sudo vim /etc/mpd.con
Change the directory where you files are (uncomment  the line also
# Files and directories #######################################################
# This setting controls the top directory which MPD will search to discover the
# available audio files and add them to the daemon’s online database. This
# setting defaults to the XDG directory, otherwise the music directory will be
# be disabled and audio files will only be accepted over ipc socket (using
# file:// protocol) or streaming files over an accepted protocol.
# music_directory               “/var/lib/mpd/music”

If you want to access the machine remotely you will need to change the hostname to the nmae of the michine, Warning: people will be albe to telnet into the machine unless you password protect the system.
# This setting sets the address for the daemon to listen on. Careful attention
# should be paid if this is assigned to anything other then the default, any.
# This setting can deny access to control of the daemon. Choose any if you want
# to have mpd listen on every address
# For network
# bind_to_address               “localhost”


# Permissions #################################################################
# If this setting is set, MPD will require password authorization. The password
# can setting can be specified multiple times for different password profiles.
#password                        “password@read,add,control,admin”
# This setting specifies the permissions a user has who has not yet logged in.
#default_permissions             “read,add,control,admin”

There are other settings, but I will let you check that out your selves..

Now to access the system form other machines. There is a client for about every system known to man. You can check them out yourself at:

Screenshot from 2013-12-08 16:25:45.png

To add a radio station, you most likely have to have a url.

Have fun


Couple of cartoons:

Screenshot from 2015-06-06 07:36:40

Screenshot from 2015-06-04 02:20:52

Screenshot from 2015-05-29 14:47:37

Screenshot from 2015-06-01 00:47:39

Screenshot from 2015-05-29 15:27:06

Screenshot from 2015-06-01 01:12:30


——-Screenshot from 2015-05-31 17:55:25———————————————–

Put your tax dollars back to work.  Obsolete #computers could be a boon for #school #science departments.There are three kinds of ports usually on microcontrollers. Digital, Serial and pwm. From computers, the digital is the parallel port. you can also use the parallel port for pwm using only a few lines of code say in even qbasic. Lastly the serial port can be adapted to interface all kinds of sensors such as for temperature. That obsolete  computer can be made  into a sous vide machine in a matter of minutes, Control leds, an rc car, or even be used as a part of a home automation project. The i486 make a nice multiple rocket launcher. It’s your tax dollars, so use it wisely. #retrocomputing





Screenshot from 2015-06-08 12:33:46

Not ours but some nice files for instruction in electronics.
wget https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/103847327/Lab%201.pdf
wget https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/103847327/Lab%202.pdf

wget https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/103847327/Lab%202%20part%202.pdf
wget https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/103847327/Lab%203.pdf
wget https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/103847327/Lab%204.pdf
wget https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/103847327/Lab%205.pdf
wget https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/103847327/Lab%206.pdf
wget https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/103847327/Lab%207.pdf

wget https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/103847327/Lab%208.pdf

wget https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/103847327/Lab%209.pdf
wget https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/103847327/Lab%2010.pdf

wget https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/103847327/Lab%202%20part%202.pdf


PC oscilloscope or how to save yourself hundreds of dollars before you buy an oscilloscope. Pull that old PC out of the closet and make it an oscilloscope: Could of copied everything here like I usually do, but most people know how to use a hyperlink.  http://www.instructables.com/id/Simple-PC-oscilliscope/


Minimal to use the Arduino as a web server and that is already in a sketch
that you can use. You need to edit the code so it will work in your network. 
<pre><code class="hljs cpp"><span class="hljs-preprocessor">#include <SPI.h>
#include <Ethernet.h>

/******************** ETHERNET SETTINGS ********************/

byte mac[] = { 0x90, 0xA2, 0xDA, 0x0D, 0x85, 0xD9 };  //physical mac address
byte ip[] = { 192, 168, 0, 112 };                   // ip in lan
byte subnet[] = { 255, 255, 255, 0 };              //subnet mask
byte gateway[] = { 192, 168, 0, 1 };              // default gateway
EthernetServer server(80);                       //server port

void setup()
Ethernet.begin(mac,ip,gateway,subnet);     // initialize Ethernet device
server.begin();                             // start to listen for clients
pinMode(8, INPUT);                         // input pin for switch

void loop()
EthernetClient client = server.available();   // look for the client

/* a place for the code*/

delay(1);      // giving time to receive the data

The following line is important because it will stop the client
and look for the new connection in the next iteration i.e
EthernetClient client = server.available();
<pre><code class="hljs cpp"><span class="hljs-preprocessor">


Now for the code to do what you want the Arduino to do. Almost looks like
a type of cgi script. This goes in the middle of the script. Definitely 
some errors in this case.


client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"HTTP/1.1 200 OK"</span>);
client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"Content-Type: text/html"</span>);
client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"Connnection: close"</span>);

<span class="hljs-comment">/*
This portion is the webpage which will be
sent to client web browser one can use html , javascript
and another web markup language to make particular layout

client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"<!DOCTYPE html>"</span>);    <span class="hljs-comment">//web page is made using html</span>
client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"<html>"</span>);
client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"<head>"</span>);
client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"<title>Ethernet Tutorial</title>"</span>);
client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"<meta http-equiv=\"refresh\" content=\"1\">"</span>);

<span class="hljs-comment">/*
The above line is used to refresh the page in every 1 second
This will be sent to the browser as the following HTML code:
<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="1">
content = 1 sec i.e assign time for refresh

client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"</head>"</span>);
client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"<body>"</span>);
client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"<h1>A Webserver Tutorial </h1>"</span>);
client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"<h2>Observing State Of Switch</h2>"</span>);

client.print(<span class="hljs-string">"<h2>Switch is:  </2>"</span>);

<span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (digitalRead(<span class="hljs-number">8</span>))
client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"<h3>ON</h3>"</span>);
<span class="hljs-keyword">else</span>
client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"<h3>OFF</h3>"</span>);

client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"</body>"</span>);
client.println(<span class="hljs-string">"</html>"</span>);</pre>
<pre><code class="hljs cpp">


This what the code might look like all put back together and have made 
a few changes.


<pre><code class="hljs cpp">#include <SPI.h>
#include <Ethernet.h>
/******************** ETHERNET SETTINGS ********************/

byte mac[] = { 0x90, 0xA2, 0xDA, 0x0D, 0x85, 0xD9 };  //physical mac address
byte ip[] = { 192, 168, 1, 112 };                   // ip in lan
byte subnet[] = { 255, 255, 255, 0 };              //subnet mask
byte gateway[] = { 192, 168, 1, 1 };              // default gateway
EthernetServer server(80);                       //server port

void setup()
Ethernet.begin(mac,ip,gateway,subnet);     // initialize Ethernet device
server.begin();                             // start to listen for clients
pinMode(8, INPUT);                         // input pin for switch

void loop()
EthernetClient client = server.available();   // look for the client

// send a standard http response header

client.println("HTTP/1.1 200 OK");
client.println("Content-Type: text/html");
client.println("Connnection: close");

This portion is the webpage which will be
sent to client web browser one can use html , javascript
and another web markup language to make particular layout

client.println("<!DOCTYPE html>");    //web page is made using html
client.println("<title>Ethernet Tutorial</title>");
client.println("<meta http-equiv=\"refresh\" content=\"1\">");

The above line is used to refresh the page in every 1 second
This will be sent to the browser as the following HTML code:
<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="1">
content = 1 sec i.e assign time for refresh

client.println("<h1>A Webserver Tutorial </h1>");

client.println("<h2>Observing State Of Switch</h2>");
client.println("<table border='1'>");
client.print("<h2>Switch is:  </h2>");
if (digitalRead(8))
e</code><code class="hljs cpp"><code class="hljs cpp"> </code><code class="hljs cpp"> </code><code class="hljs cpp">---</code>lse

delay(1);      // giving time to receive the data

The following line is important because it will stop the client
and look for the new connection in the next iteration i.e
EthernetClient client = server.available();

<pre><code class="hljs cpp">


Ideas on holding several Raspberry Pi’s together,


or put them into individually stackable cases


Compatible to computer networks.

What is the ESP8266?

The ESP8266, is a cheap WiFi module which you can address using the UART protocol. It’s been featured on Hackaday and other DIY electronics blogs very recently, and lots of DIY electronics tinkers are very excited at the doors this module opens for their projects. The module is:
Small Footprint
Easy to integrate with (using UART)
Takes care of all other overheads for getting WiFi up-and-running (TCP/IP Stack etc…)
. . . and, perhaps more importantly than all the other factors, very cheap – it can be purchased from China in a quantity of one for less than £4 !

There are no market equivalents for the DIY community – the XBee has been a popular choice for adding WiFi to DIY projects up until now, but the ESP8266 module is close to one tenth the price making it easily accessible for all types of low cost applications.

The ESP8266 is the name of the chip it’s self manufactured by a company called Espressif, but it is sold in modules manufactured in China which look as seen below,

The module can be addressed using a series of AT commands. These are simple commands sent UART at 115200 baud. For example, once the module is wired up, you can send the command

AT+RST will perform a software reset on the device. AT+CWLAPwill displat all of the currently available WiFi networks etc. – simple enough!
How do I set up the ESP8266 Module?

Here is a simple pin-out for the module (the pin numbers are defined in the table
and relate to the image):

Pin Number Pin Function Pin Number Pin Function
1 RX 5 GPIO2
4 RST 8 TX

Note: Under normal operation Pin 6 (CH_PD) should be tied high (3V3) to ensure correct operation

As such, you can easily wire up the module to an Arduino or just a simple USB to serial converter and start sending AT commands (Remember: RX on the module joins to TX on the connection device and vice versa!).
What are the drawbacks of using this module?

As we’ve seen above, this is shaping up to be a very good value-for-money solution for adding WiFi capabilities to DIY projects, so what are the limitations.
The module is rather ‘power thirsty’. The current supplied via USB to an Arduino is barely enough to power this module. Other websites have recommended that you should have easily 1A available, but I have not measured this myself. This makes integrating the module slightly more tricky as a second, separate voltage regulator is required and it also rules out any battery powered projects.
It is temperamental – I’ve had a chance to play with this module, and although it works most of the time, all of the sample code I have found provides far from a solid solution – there are plenty of quirks to using it.

Code examples:  https://github.com/esp8266/Arduino/archive/esp8266-sdk-1.0.zip

Adding support for the esp8266 in the arduino ide 1.6.4 Depending on the speed of your internet connection how long it will take

Installing with Boards Manager

Starting with 1.6.4, Arduino allows installation of third-party platform packages using Boards Manager. We have packages available for Windows, Mac OS, and Linux (32 and 64 bit). The 1.7.3 version did not have this option.

  • Install Arduino 1.6.4 from the Arduino website.
  • Start Arduino and open Perferences window.
  • Enter http://arduino.esp8266.com/package_esp8266com_index.json into Additional Board Manager URLs field. You can add multiple URLs, separating them with commas.
  • Open Boards Manager from Tools > Board menu and install esp8266 platform (and don’t forget to select your ESP8266 board from Tools > Board menu after installation).




Something cool. (Salt helps it cool faster),

Good day

2b | !2b Shakesperean math?

Leave a comment

Chit chat


Screenshot - 06172014 - 10:01:35 AM

Just finished running the slackeware 14.1 update on my old Pentium 1 586. The wordpress update is taking a bit longer. Have tried to install all the old CL favorites like sc, but my favorite install is Freebasic. Have been able to port so much of my old software. Need to copy all my new batch files especially the page scrapers. Also installed is the web server for use as a doc server. When I did the install I did it with a pxeboot to a directory on the web server and the internet did the rest. Might be interesting if I could get iscsi or aoe to work and make the local hd unneeded. That is for another day. Using a compact flash for the drive now. So quiet. Also made an atx to at power cable so I could run the system on battery if needed. What does ‘obsolete’ mean? have dnsmasq working on it.
 If you are coding just to code, consider other opportunities There is a lot more to it than just slinging code unless you are just doing it for your own enjoyment. To be honest, if you go to work for a company you will not be choosing what language you use, My first real job was s a maintenance programmer. They had one programming language I was familiar with, but had to learn a completely new language to do my job. Fortunately, having used several languages, I was able to adapt. Just a grain of salt. .
Remember #caldera , #SCO and etc. Guess they forgot they gave out their source code. #linux
You heard of B.C. This is B. A.  Before #Arduino. #hardware
Sous vide #arduino prototype
Normally we avoid posting anything Microsoft, but today we are going to make an exception.
When is the best time to get a free computer? When marriages or couples break apart and when MSWindows users think they need a new machine because the operating system requires beefier hardware. Acquired this old P3 for free from a couple breakup. Wiped the drive and put Linux on it.

Developed this simple wedding registry using Visual Basic on a i386 in the early days of gui for my then employer. Got me and interview to work with IT but accepted another companies offer.. Need to go back and code again.

Early dual cpu (aka dual core) system that was set up as a router. A collectors item.


Ever go somewhere and you need to have several systems be able to access their network, but they say all you cn have is one Ipaddress. An Ipaddress is like a phone number for a computer.  You can only have one per system under normal circumstances. Here with an extra system, we will show you how to do this.

A multitude of reasons exist as to why one would want to build a custom router vs. suffer with the performance, reliability issues, and limitations of an off-the-shelf solution. In the spirit of keeping this post short, I won’t launch into a long diatribe on the pros and cons of each here, but I have plenty of thoughts on this, so if you are interested, just ask.

What we are about to do is configure an incredibly fast and stable router/gateway solution for your home/office in about 15 minutes. (Note: This post assumes you already have your machine loaded up with a fresh copy of Ubuntu 14.04 or an equivalent and you have the two needed NICs installed.) This is not a firewall.

First, let’s make three initial assumptions:

eth0 is the public interface (the Cable/DSL modem is attached to this NIC)
eth1 is the private interface (your switch is connected to this NIC)
All of the client computers, servers, WAPs, etc. are connected to the switch

Let’s get started with the configuration. Set your timer and type quickly! :)

1.) Configure the network interfaces
You may need to make sure for older systems that plug and play os is enabled. Change the “address”, “netmask”, and “broadcast” values to match your internal network preferences. They must be different from the host aka wan network.

sudo nano -w /etc/network/interfaces
# The external WAN interface (eth0) public
allow-hotplug eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp

# The internal LAN interface (eth1) private
allow-hotplug eth1
iface eth1 inet static

2. Install and configure DNSmasq
DNSmasq is DNS forwarder and DHCP server. Change “domain” to the FQDN of your network and “dhcp-range” to the desired range of DHCP addresses you would like your router to serve out to clients.

sudo apt-get install dnsmasq

nano -w /etc/dnsmasq.conf

3.) Enable IP Forwarding
Uncomment the following line:

sudo nano -w /etc/sysctl.conf

4.) Configure iptables
We create a file called /etc/iptables.rules and put this rule set inside of it.  As an example, this set includes allowing tcp traffic in from the outside world on port 222 (I run SSH on this alternate port) and also port-forwards tcp port 50,000 to an internal machine with the ip of 10,1,10.3 Use this as a guide for your own rules.

Note that when you do this access to the system will be locked down amd ssh not work. Infact a ping to the system will be ignored.

sudo nano -w /etc/iptables.rules

-A PREROUTING -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp –dport 50000 -j DNAT –to-destination

-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp –dport 222 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i eth0 -j DROP
-A FORWARD -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp –dport 50000 -m state –state NEW -j ACCEPT

5.) Activate your iptables rules

iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.rules

6.) Ensure iptables rules start on boot
Insert the following line into your /etc/network/interfaces file right underneath “iface lo inet loopback”

nano -w /etc/network/interfaces
pre-up iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.rules

7.) Reboot and Verify
That’s it! After a reboot, you should now have a very basic Linux Router/Gateway for your network.

router:~$ sudo nano -w /etc/iptables.rules
[sudo] password for eddie:

router:~$ sudo iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.rules

router:~$ sudo nano -w /etc/network/interfaces

router:~$ sudo reboot

Broadcast message from router
(/dev/pts/0) at 8:44 …

The system is going down for reboot NOW!
Connection to closed by remote host.

Connection to closed.

You should be able to use your router now.

NOte: you should be able to do this with most any distro, but using different commands. Wnat to try this with a pentium 1 and Slackware. Did not have time to trying before putting this article out.

oedt01:~$ ssh’s password:
Welcome to Ubuntu 14.04.2 LTS (GNU/Linux 3.13.0-53-generic i686)

* Documentation:  https://help.ubuntu.com/
Last login: Fri May 29 07:39:02 2015

router:~$ cd /etc

router:/etc$ sudo vim  dnsmasq.conf
[sudo] password for eddie:

router:/etc$ sudo vim /etc/network/interfaces

router:/etc$ sudo vim  dnsmasq.conf

router:/etc$ sudo service dnsmasq restart

* Restarting DNS forwarder and DHCP server dnsmasq                      [ OK ]
router:/etc$ sudo service dnsmasq sttus
Usage: /etc/init.d/dnsmasq {start|stop|restart|force-reload|dump-stats|status}
router:/etc$ sudo service dnsmasq status
* Checking DNS forwarder and DHCP server dnsmasq                                * (running)

Connect to the client side. We used a tablet and crossover adapter to check dnsmasq. You could use a network switch also.

Note: if you get a usb to ethernet adapter, you can make a mice little Raspberry Pi router. You could also use a wireless card for the lan, but that requires a bit more security,

You may also want to setup webmin to make managing the router easier.


It is not required, but installing webmin can make managing the router easier.

router:/etc$ cd

router:~$ wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/webadmin/webmin_1.750_all.deb
–2015-05-29 08:15:22–  http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/webadmin/webmin_1.750_all.deb
Resolving prdownloads.sourceforge.net (prdownloads.sourceforge.net)…
Connecting to prdownloads.sourceforge.net (prdownloads.sourceforge.net)||:80… connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response… 301 Moved Permanently
Location: http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/webadmin/webmin/1.750/webmin_1.750_all.deb [following]
–2015-05-29 08:15:22–  http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/webadmin/webmin/1.750/webmin_1.750_all.deb
Resolving downloads.sourceforge.net (downloads.sourceforge.net)…
Connecting to downloads.sourceforge.net (downloads.sourceforge.net)||:80… connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response… 302 Found
Location: http://hivelocity.dl.sourceforge.net/project/webadmin/webmin/1.750/webmin_1.750_all.deb [following]
–2015-05-29 08:15:22–  http://hivelocity.dl.sourceforge.net/project/webadmin/webmin/1.750/webmin_1.750_all.deb
Resolving hivelocity.dl.sourceforge.net (hivelocity.dl.sourceforge.net)…
Connecting to hivelocity.dl.sourceforge.net (hivelocity.dl.sourceforge.net)||:80… connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response… 200 OK
Length: 26195366 (25M) [application/octet-stream]
Saving to: ‘webmin_1.750_all.deb’

100%[======================================>] 26,195,366   586KB/s   in 42s

2015-05-29 08:16:04 (614 KB/s) – ‘webmin_1.750_all.deb’ saved [26195366/26195366]

router:~$ sudo dpkg -i webmin_1.750_all.debSelecting previously unselected package webmin.
(Reading database … 57184 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack webmin_1.750_all.deb …
Unpacking webmin (1.750) …
dpkg: dependency problems prevent configuration of webmin:
webmin depends on libnet-ssleay-perl; however:
Package libnet-ssleay-perl is not installed.
webmin depends on libauthen-pam-perl; however:
Package libauthen-pam-perl is not installed.
webmin depends on libio-pty-perl; however:
Package libio-pty-perl is not installed.
webmin depends on apt-show-versions; however:
Package apt-show-versions is not installed.

dpkg: error processing package webmin (–install):
dependency problems – leaving unconfigured
Processing triggers for ureadahead (0.100.0-16) …
Errors were encountered while processing:

There will probably be an error. There is an easy fix.

router:~$ sudo apt-get upgrade -f
Reading package lists… Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information… Done
Correcting dependencies… Done
Calculating upgrade… Done
The following NEW packages will be installed:
apt-show-versions libapt-pkg-perl libauthen-pam-perl libio-pty-perl
0 upgraded, 5 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
1 not fully installed or removed.
Need to get 425 kB of archives.
After this operation, 1,752 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n]
Get:1 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty/main libnet-ssleay-perl i386 1.58-1 [242 kB]
Get:2 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty/universe libauthen-pam-perl i386 0.16-2build3 [27.8 kB]
Get:3 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty/main libio-pty-perl i386 1:1.08-1build4 [36.7 kB]
Get:4 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty/main libapt-pkg-perl i386 0.1.29build1 [84.5 kB]
Get:5 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty/universe apt-show-versions all 0.22.3 [33.9 kB]
Fetched 425 kB in 1s (226 kB/s)
Selecting previously unselected package libnet-ssleay-perl.
(Reading database … 82053 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack …/libnet-ssleay-perl_1.58-1_i386.deb …
Unpacking libnet-ssleay-perl (1.58-1) …
Selecting previously unselected package libauthen-pam-perl.
Preparing to unpack …/libauthen-pam-perl_0.16-2build3_i386.deb …
Unpacking libauthen-pam-perl (0.16-2build3) …
Selecting previously unselected package libio-pty-perl.
Preparing to unpack …/libio-pty-perl_1%3a1.08-1build4_i386.deb …
Unpacking libio-pty-perl (1:1.08-1build4) …
Selecting previously unselected package libapt-pkg-perl.
Preparing to unpack …/libapt-pkg-perl_0.1.29build1_i386.deb …
Unpacking libapt-pkg-perl (0.1.29build1) …
Selecting previously unselected package apt-show-versions.
Preparing to unpack …/apt-show-versions_0.22.3_all.deb …
Unpacking apt-show-versions (0.22.3) …
Processing triggers for man-db ( …
Setting up libnet-ssleay-perl (1.58-1) …
Setting up libauthen-pam-perl (0.16-2build3) …
Setting up libio-pty-perl (1:1.08-1build4) …
Setting up libapt-pkg-perl (0.1.29build1) …
Setting up apt-show-versions (0.22.3) …
** initializing cache. This may take a while **
Setting up webmin (1.750) …
Webmin install complete. You can now login to https://router:10000/
as root with your root password, or as any user who can use sudo
to run commands as root.
Processing triggers for ureadahead (0.100.0-16) …


How can I compile a simple C or C++ program on Linux operating systems using bash Terminal application?

Tutorial details

Difficulty: easy
Root privileges No
Requirements GNU C/C++ compiler
Estimated completion time 10m

GNU C and C++ compiler collection
Development tools
Development libraries
IDE or text editor to write programs

Part 1: Install C/C++ compiler and related tools

To compile a C or C++ program on any Linux distro such as Ubuntu, Red Hat, Fedora, Debian and other Linux distro you need to install:

>Fedora, Redhat, Centos, Or Scientific linux:

# yum groupinstall ‘Development Tools’

>Debian, Ubuntu, or Mint

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install build-essential manpages-dev

To verify the install, type the following commands to display the version number and location of the compiler on Linux:

$ whereis gcc
$ which gcc
$ gcc –version

Sample outputs:

$ whereis gcc
gcc: /usr/bin/gcc /usr/lib/gcc /usr/bin/X11/gcc

$ whereis g++
g++: /usr/bin/g++ /usr/bin/X11/g++

$ gcc –version
gcc (Debian 4.7.2-5) 4.7.2
Copyright (C) 2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO

$ gcc
gcc: fatal error: no input files
compilation terminated.

Part 2:  GNU C compiler on Linux. Create a file called demo.c using a text editor such as vim or nano

/* demo.c: My first C program on a Linux
int main(void) {
printf(“Hello! This is a test program.\n”);
return 0;

Save as demo.c

How do I compile the program on Linux?

Use any one of the following syntax to compile the program called demo.c:

$ cc program-source-code.c -o executable-file-name


$ gcc program-source-code.c -o executable-file-name

In this example, compile demo.c, enter:
$ cc demo.c -o demo

If there is no error in your code or C program then the compiler will successfully create an executable file called demo in the current directory, otherwise you need fix the code. To verify this, type:

$ ls -al demo*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 eddie eddie 4884 May 31 20:35 demo
-rw-r–r– 1 eddie eddie  149 May 31 20:35 demo.c

How do I run or execute the program called demo on Linux? Just simply type the the program name

$ ./demo


$ /path/to/demo

$ ./demo
Hello! This is a test program.

Part 3: GNU C++ compiler on Linux

Create a program called demo.cpp as follows:

#include “iostream”
// demo2.C – Sample C++ program
int main(void) {
std::cout << “Hello! This is a C++ program.\n”;
return 0;

To compile this program, enter:

$ g++ demo.cpp -o demo

To run this program, type: ./demo

$ ./demo
Hello! This is a C++ program.

Part 4: More information.
How do I generate optimized code on a Linux machine?

The syntax is as follows C compiler:
cc -O input.c -o executable
The syntax is as follows C++ compiler:
g++ -O -Wall input.C -o executable
How do I compile a C program that uses math functions?

The syntax is as follows when need pass the -lm option with gcc to link with the math libraries:
cc myth1.c -o executable -lm
How do I compile a C++ program that uses Xlib graphics functions?

The syntax is as follows when need pass the -lX11 option with gcc to link with the Xlib libraries:
g++ fireworks.C -o executable -lX11
How do I compile a program with multiple source files?

The syntax is as follows if the source code is in several files (such as light.c, sky.c, fireworks.c):
cc light.c sky.c fireworks.c -o executable
C++ syntax is as follows if the source code is in several files:
g++ ac.C bc.C file3.C -o my-program-name

See gcc(1) : Linux and Unix man page for more information.

$ man gcc


Yet another weather picture grabber and the the picture is converted to ascii.


#Set variables


#check for  download directory
if [ ! -d “$DOWNLOAD_DIR” ]; then
mkdir -p $DOWNLOAD_DIR

#remove old files
rm  $DOWNLOAD_DIR/*gif
rm  $DOWNLOAD_DIR/*.png
rm  $DOWNLOAD_DIR/*.txt

#get weather gif
wget $WEATHER_GIF -O “${DOWNLOAD_DIR}map.gif”

#extract gif to png
convert -coalesce “${DOWNLOAD_DIR}/map.gif” “${DOWNLOAD_DIR}/map.png”

#convert images to text
for i in $DOWNLOAD_DIR/map-*; do
img2txt -f utf8 -W 100 -H 30 $i > $i.txt

#display images
while [ $COUNTER -lt 5 ] ; do
for i in $DOWNLOAD_DIR/map-*.txt; do
printf ’33[1;1H’
cat $i
sleep 0.5



There are many parts to home automation but the main need is to be able to turn something on or off. Without that the rest is meaningless. Let us start with a simple light switch that you can control manually. The off position we will call zero and the on position we will call the one state.


Of course the purpose of home automation is for you not to have to manually turn off or on a switch. So we can get an electronic part known as a switching transistor to do the job for us with the help of a computing device that we can program. These diagrams are way over simplified to make things simpler. We could ask the computer to turn off all the leds with a command like out 888,0 and if any leds were on, they would immediately turn off.


The again, we could issue a command to turn them all on with out 888,255


Then you would want to turn them off and on individually also. Then you would either write some code or have a per-written program to do it for you and have appliances turn on or off at your will. Of course once you have your programming arranged, you can control the leds or any kind of home appliance or anything else at will. That is when interesting things can start happening if you want them to.

That ends part one.  Next time we will dig a little deeper using sensors such as a computer based thermometer as part of the mix.


In the real world. you probably would not be building any electronics. You could purchase network based control boxes. Most of the devices would be controlled by the time of day or manually controlled like a remote stereo system.


Many single sensors are cause and affect such as a garage door opener where the system waits for the detection of the controller and the proper security sequence. or you could have multiple sensors that workindependently but cuase the same affect such as a fire alarm or a security system

Screenshot from 2015-06-02 05:39:29

But let use get a bit more sophisticated. you could add a variety of sensors, but the most common might be the temperature sensor for control of your heating cooling system. The same idea could probably be adapted to a sous vide cooking system.

Now things have become a bit more complicated with additional sensors and control devices required. Also requires more complicated programming. You can see where systems can become very expensive.

We have only scratched the surface when it comes to sensors. That is part 2 for now,


Lovescope and monthly (use at your own risk)

# Horoscope Grabber
# Assignments
# ——————————–
let “flag = 0″
# end assignments
# Get data file
end=$(echo $1 | tr ‘[:lower:]’ ‘[:upper:]’)
elinks -dump “http://www.horoscopes.co.uk/$1/Love-Horoscope.php&#8221; > $datafile
# Extract and display data
while read line
do fdata[$a]=$line
echo $line | grep -q “Love Horoscope”
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
# header
let “flag = 1″
if [ $flag -eq 1 ]; then
echo $line | grep -q $end
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
let “flag = 0″
echo $line | grep -q “IMG”
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
let “response = donothing”
echo $line | sed ‘s/\[.*\]//’
let “a += 1″
done < $datafile
# footer
echo ———————————————
echo $1
# End.

# Horoscope Grabber
# Assignments
# ——————————–
let “flag = 0″
# end assignments
# Get data file
elinks -dump “http://www.horoscopes.co.uk/$1/Monthly-Horoscope.php&#8221; > $datafile
# Extract and display data
while read line
do fdata[$a]=$line
echo $line | grep -q “Monthly Horoscope”
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
# header
let “flag = 1″
if [ $flag -eq 1 ]; then
echo $line | grep -q “Horoscopes”
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
let “flag = 0″
echo $line | grep -q “IMG”
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
let “response = donothing”
echo $line | sed ‘s/\[.*\]//’
let “a += 1″
done < $datafile
# footer
echo ———————————————
# End.


Sweet potato pie before topping.


Good day.

Ides of May.

Leave a comment

Chit chat


Having led’s hooked to the parallel port can can a server as well as any machine the chance to send signals whether by predefined code or Morse code to a potential user.

Always looking for software to be able to reach remotely such as ERP. Just a fancy hamve for doing accounting via a web server.

Screenshot from 2015-05-15 19:01:16

Downloaded Debian binaries and the Debian sources. thereby reducing the reliance on the Internet.

Pulled out the old parallax propeller to play with.

Probably play with the new rpi’s first since I finally have the a/v cables/



All of which makes right now the perfect time to hit up your cable, Internet and phone providers for a far better monthly deal, according to Mathew Ong, senior retail specialist at nerdwallet.com in San Francisco.

“Right now is the best time in 10 years to negotiate with your cable company,” Ong said.

Now, working with the experts at nerdwallet.com, here are five simple steps to lowering those bills every month.

Step One: Tell the company you want to cancel your service.

“When you call your provider and threaten to cancel your subscription, you’ll be transferred to a customer retention specialist — a person whose whole job is dependent on keeping you on board as a customer, to keep you paying for whatever they can get you for,” said Ong.

Step Two: Tell the company you want the very same pricing they are offering new customers, which is the same as asking for their best deal.

Step Three: If step two fails, tell the company exactly what their competitors are offering and tell them you want that deal.

To make sure you know what you are talking about, have the competitors’ deal printed out in front of you.
“I would be very upfront and say, this is exactly what I want, this is what I can get from your competition if I switch to them,” Ong said.

Step Four: Be professional and polite. Whatever you do, don’t ever get angry and rude.

“Be firm, very firm, but polite. Be positive and persistent and personal with the person you are negotiating with,” Ong said.

Step Five: If you fail, don’t give up. Try again.

“If you fail at negotiating, call a second time a few days later, you will get someone else, and if that does not work, call back a third time a week after that. The trick is finding someone who wants to make the deal bad enough to deal with you and give you what you want,” said Ong.


OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. It was forked from NetBSD by project leader Theo de Raadt in late 1995. As well as the operating system, the OpenBSD Project has produced portable versions of numerous subsystems, most notably PF, OpenSSH and OpenNTPD, which are very widely available as packages in other operating systems.

The one thing I like about Openbsd is that you can use it with a variety of hardware. Normally you want to standardize the hardware you use, but on a pinch, you can use alternative hardware. This is also fortunate for people with a limited budget can use older systems to be able to compute. Now Openbsd is being made available for the new microcontrollers. which brings about other exciting opportunities. Shown above is possibly Openbsd 5.2. Notice you can have a graphical user interface aka (gui) so you are not forced to use the traditional text only interface that most people think is cryptic and hard to use.  Though you can can use that type of interface if you prefer.

Actually I prefer to use the textual interface for a lot of tasks as it s easier to automate a lot of duties. The above picture is of a fresh install onto a virtual machine. Sort of a computer within a computer. Openbsd like most computer operating systems has regular upgrades in addition to the usual updates. Version 5.7 I think is the latest version. Openbsd is free as in speech. You can download it and install without paying a price at the door so to speak.

www.openbsd.org is the main site. To install Openbsd, you really need a live internet connection. Generally you will start with some minimal software to load and go from there. This last install was actually started with just a floppy disk so speak. No licensing codes or a set of a zillion disks  to deal with. You will need a system with a free disk drive for installation and a working network card.

If you wanted to try out Openbsd without devoting a system to it you could set up a virtual machine.

Set up the virtual hard drive of 5 gigabytes

$  qemu-img create openbsd.qcow 5G

You will need to download a boot image. you can get it in several formats including a cdrom, I decide to use a floppy disk image as it is only a could of megabytes and not gigabytes. Start the install.

$ qemu -fda  ~/Downloads/floppy57.fs -hda openbsd .qcow -boot d -net nic -net user -m 196 -localtime

More details about the installation can be found at http://www.openbsd.org/faq/faq4.html.  For the most part I just used the defaults.

Once you have finished the install the floppy is not needed anymore so you can eliminate it from the setup.

$ qemu  -hda openbsd.qcow -boot d -net nic -net user -m 196 -localtime

Once you have done the installation, you can add lots of productivity software depending on the amount of free disk space you have. By the way a web server is built in traditionally.  We plan to outfit some old existing Pentium I computers for use in a school saving the school many dollars in computer hardware costs.

Once you have done the installation, you can add lots of productivity software depending on the amount of free disk space you have. By the way a web server is built in traditionally.  We plan to outfit some old existing Pentium I computers for use in a school saving the school many dollars in computer hardware costs.

Let’s update it. I linux you have a sources.list file. with bsd perse you have to set a parth to the packages the first time

#  export PKG_PATH=”http://mirror.esc7.net/pub/OpenBSD/$(uname -r)/packages/$(arch -s)/”

Will take into account the version of bsd and the hardware platform you using.

# Now the upgrade:

# pkg_add -uvi

There should not be any updates if you have just done a fresh install.

Now for packages. Screen is a very useful program especially if you use the command line a lot.

#pkg_add -i screen

Will allow you to install screen interactively.

For more information see:  http://www.openbsd.org/faq/faq15.html#PkgInstall


Picture of Crossword or Scrabble helper.


Doing a crossword and no one around to ask about a word, then this instructable is for you. Have not played scrabble since I was a kid. Also like to do crossword puzzles. If everyone uses the same tools, then it really is playing fair.There is an easy way to make the game more interesting and you increase your vocabulary as well as your typing skills at the same time.Recommended that you have at least some time at the linux command line. These tricks can also be done on the Mac and BSD with minor modifications.Note: a quick grep trick for finding a file wth certain text is:locate filename | grep search text$ locate.pdf | grep arduino

Step 1: Whats required?

Linux based computer where you can access the command line.Software:
A word file which should be already available in linux.
Access to the “grep” command.Knowledge:
Assuming you know how to do a crossword puzzle and or know how to play scrabble.
You know how to use the linux command line.

Step 2: Getting the words.

Picture of Getting the words.


What would one need? Maybe a list of words and a way to search the list of words. Let’s see there is a list of words on a linux system. That file could be easily copied to the home directory. You definitely want to copy it so if you edit it and there is an issue, there will be no problems with your system. $ cp /usr/share/dict/words .

Step 3: Using grep.

Picture of Using grep.
To get to know a command called grep a little better, tried to explore how it could be used to an advantage.  For now, how can I search through the file. The grep command will work perfectly. Well how do you use it. Lets say we want to add some letters where there is ed at the end. We use the “$” sign to show that we want something at the end of the word. $ grep “ed$” words


This generates a rather long list. so we might want to paginate the output.
$ grep “ed$” words | less
or we might want to save the list to a file we can edit and peruse for later use.
$ grep “ed$” words > wordfile
That is nice, now lets do letters at the beggining of the file. We use the “^” sign to show that we want something at the beggining of the word.
$ grep “^th” words


You can combine the two commands so that you can find a word that has the beginning and the ending we want. We want to use an “*” to say any letters can go in between. In this case thought we want one of the letters to be “m”. We use “[]” to show which possible letter or letters we want in between.
$ grep “^zo*[m]*ed$” words
There you can use the “[]” to say I want to have any words that start with these two letters.
$ grep “^[xz]“

…grep “^m..t..s$” words
mysticsBlow by blow:* ^ – The carat (shift-6) says “this is the beginning of the line”. Without it, it would find all words like “fundamentals”.
* $ – The dollar sign is the same thing, only for the end of the line. Without it, you’d also get words like “mattresses”.
* . – The period means “any character here”. One, and one only, character will match here.But suppose you’re dealing with a game besides a crossword puzzle, like Scrabble for instance, and you’re limited by more constraints than in a crossword. You might want to ‘hook’ (Scrabble lingo for ‘add letters to the beginning or end of a word to form more words’). So, let’s see how many words end in “are”.ß grep “are$” words | wc -l
43Well, those are good odds. But we hit the edge of the board with some of them (I peeked). So, we need words that are seven letters or less which end in “are”. “^….are$” would get all of the seven letter words, but not the shorter ones. The solution is rather cryptic this time:ß grep “^.\{1,4\}are$” words
welfare…but we’ve met the caret, dollar sign, and period before, so really the new part is the \{1,4\}. This says “match as few as one, and as many as four, repetitions of the previous character”. The activator for the number range is the curly braces, which then have to be escaped with slashes (does anybody know why, class?). And since the previous character is a period, which matches any letter, we’ve found all the words shorter than eight letters which end in “are”.This is all well and good, but we only have so many letters to work with in Scrabble at one time. Say that our current rack has the letters “C F T W A B M”. Can we limit it to only words which use those letters?ß grep “^[cftwabm]\{1,4\}are$” words
wareAh, now we’re getting somewhere! The [] square brackets give the set of acceptable characters. Another way to use them is to express a range (e. g. [0-9]), but that’s hardly the usual case in word games.The only limitation is the imagination. If you are playing scrabble, let your partners know what you doing to prevent any hurt feelings. I like to use this same idea for crossword puzzles also.

Step 4: Last thoughts.

Picture of Last thoughts.


If you want to combine two or more word lists to have a greater vocabulary to work from is fine also: (words.new must be an ascii or text file.)$ mv words words.old
$ cat words.old words.new > words.temp
$ sort words.temp | uniq -u > wordsList amount of words$ wc -l wordsYou should now have a larger word file!One other hint:
One zip file I downloaded of words had the words in files separated by the first letter. I needed them in one list. No problem.$ cat {A..Z}.DIC > words.newThere are plenty of on-line web pages to do all this stuff, but for me it is nice not to have to depend on the internet all the time for one’s needs. Have fun!

Step 5: Bonus: What words can you make.

Picture of Bonus: What words can you make.


Like anagrams or wonder what words you can make then try the “an” command.
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install an
$ an “instructables”
inscrutable st
inscrutable t’s
inscrutable ts
inscrutable t s
inscrutable t s

Want a limited list of only 10 options try:
$ an -n 10 “instructables”
inscrutable st
inscrutable t’s
inscrutable ts
inscrutable t s
inscrutable t s
inscrutable t s
inscrutable t s
incurables st t
incurables t’s t
incurables ts t

Step 6: Use grep to extract from a stream

Picture of Use grep to extract from a stream


Simple batch file to get weather information: (head command limits results).
#! /bin/bash
tmon=$(date +”%b”)
tday=$(date +”%d”)
echo “The weather for $zip on $tmon $tday:”
lynx -width 1000 -dump “http://m.wund.com/cgi-bin/findweather/getForecast?brand=mobile&query=$zip&#8221; > weather
cat weather | grep “Updated”
cat weather | grep “Observed”
cat weather | grep “Temperature”
cat weather | grep “Humidity”
cat weather | grep ” Dew Point”
cat weather | grep “Wind” | head -1
cat weather | grep “Wind Gust” | head -1
cat weather | grep “Pressure”
cat weather | grep “Conditions” | head -1
cat weather | grep “Visibility”
cat weather | grep “UV”
cat weather | grep “Clouds”
cat weather | grep “Yesterday’s Maximum”
cat weather | grep ” Yesterday’s Minimum”
cat weather | grep “Sunrise”
cat weather | grep “Sunset”
cat weather | grep “Moon Rise”
cat weather | grep “Moon Set”
cat weather | grep -A1 “Moon Phase”
cat weather | grep “Raw METAR”


Look at astrology as an intellectual cartoon and an insight into human thinking. So I will peek at it once in a while. Also gave a chance to play with page scraping again.

$ ./horoscope.sh Virgo

Daily Horoscope for Tuesday 19th May 2015

Share :

Through friends of someone close, you could learn more about their
background. This extra information, particularly if it’s related to how
they acquired their qualifications, and the friendships they made en
route, may not be something you wish to discuss with others, but might go
some way towards explaining why they are pulled towards certain
geographical locations. This might even impact on decisions being taken
now for travel in a couple of months time.





Wrote a script to pull the daily horoscope for a particular sign. The site we are getting the data from has changed. So that led me to go to another site for the time being. Actually it seems a blessing in disguise because now we can get more than the daily listing. Here is the original script.

Original script

# Get today's horoscope
# get sign
read -p "Enter your horscope sign: " hsign
if [ -z $hsign  ]
then hsign="virgo"
# hsign=$(zenity --entry \
#        --title="Daily Horoscope" \
#        --text="Enter your _sign:" \
#        --entry-text "$hsign")
# output data
# character width required for information box
#create data file (datadir and file name can be changed to your needs.
# make sure hsign is uppercase
hsign="`echo $hsign|tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]'`"
cat $datadir/$hsign > $filename
echo -n "Today's date: " >> $filename
date +%D >> $filename
echo "Today's horoscope for:" >> $filename
lynx -width 1000 -dump
 | grep $hsign | fold -sw $cw >> $filename
# zenity --text-info --filename=$filename
cat $filename
#remove  unneeded file
rm $filename

Was not sure how to do the script, but the I remembered the old CNN script we used. Minor changes and so we are back with the scopes again. To invoke the script you would use

./horoscope.sh signname

$ ./horoscope.sh Virgo

First letter must be capitalized and the rest lower case.
New script

# Horoscope  Grabber
# Assignments
# ——————————–
let "flag = 0"
# end assignments
# Get data file
elinks -dump "http://www.horoscopes.co.uk/$1/Daily-Horoscope.php"  > $datafile
# Extract and display data
while read line
do fdata[$a]=$line
    echo $line | grep -q "Daily Horoscope"
    if  [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
        # header
        let "flag = 1"
    if [ $flag -eq 1 ]; then
        echo $line | grep -q "$1"
            if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
            let "flag = 0"
            echo $line | grep -q "IMG"       
            if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
                let "response = donothing"
                echo $line | sed ‘s/\[.*\]//’
let "a += 1"
done < $datafile
# footer
echo ———————————————
# End.


Get your google data such as pictures. email and etc. Just go to https://www.google.com/settings/takeout and then you can choose what to get. an archive will be created for you to download when the archive is finished, or you can wait and use the email they send you when the archive is done to go back and download the data.



Just a bit of news again. According to the Linux Link Tech Show aka #tllts eyeOS  a gui desktop web based application  that can run from a gui-less server has been forked to Oneos.  Actually I have seen several similar sort of micro googledocs projects on Sourceforge. http://www.instructables.com/id/eyeOS/   http://oneye-project.org/
 Early dual cpu (aka dual core) system that was set up as a router. A collectors item. #retrocomputing.


To determine how many files there are in the current directory, put in ls -1 | wc -l. This uses wc to do a count of the number of lines (-l) in the output of ls -1. It doesn’t count dotfiles. Please note that ls -l (that’s an “L” rather than a “1” as in the previous examples) which I used in previous versions of this HOWTO will actually give you a file count one greater than the actual count. Thanks to Kam Nejad for this point.  If you want to count only files and NOT include symbolic links (just an example of what else you could do), you could use ls -l | grep -v ^l | wc -l (that’s an “L” not a “1” this time, we want a “long” listing here). grep checks for any line beginning with “l” (indicating a link), and discards that line (-v).  Relative speed: “ls -1 /usr/bin/ | wc -l” takes about 1.03 seconds on an unloaded 486SX25 (/usr/bin/ on this machine has 355 files). “ls -l /usr/bin/ | grep -v ^l | wc -l” takes about 1.19 seconds.


CNC is a big thing. You might think of it as the 2d version of a 3d machine. Always have wanted to build one myself. Have the stepper motors, just have to make the rack.

Numerical control (NC) is the automation of machine tools that are operated by precisely programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually via hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone. Most NC today is computer (or computerized) numerical control (CNC) in which computers play an integral part of the control.

Nowadays You can get a computerand almost do all of it yourself.First you have to have a drawing prepared. There are lots of existing artwork you can use or you can create your own .svg files with Inkscape. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an XML-based vector image format for two-dimensional graphics with support for interactivity and animation. The SVG specification is an open standard developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) since 1999. SVG images and their behaviors are defined in XML text files. See also  https://www.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl#q=inkscape+tutorial

Once you have created your graphic or use and existing one, you can  use a specialized version of linux know as linuxcnc.

You can also use a program called Jscut that can run from a web server or a local machine. The advantage is that you can install it once and use it many times where ever you are at.  Most systems generate gcode.

G-code (also RS-274), which has many variants, is the common name for the most widely used numerical control (NC) programming language. It is used mainly in computer-aided manufacturing for controlling automated machine tools. G-code is sometimes called G programming language.

In fundamental terms, G-code is a language in which people tell computerized machine tools how to make something. The how is defined by instructions on where to move, how fast to move, and through what path to move. The most common situation is that, within a machine tool, a cutting tool is moved according to these instructions through a toolpath, cutting away excess material to leave only the finished workpiece. The same concept also extends to noncutting tools such as forming or burnishing tools, photoplotting, additive methods such as 3D printing, and measuring instruments.

Jscut is certainly easier generating Gcode by hand then feeding a papertape  into a cnc machine.  You do need to know what cnc is about to really use the Jscut. See also: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dVgf0Hf91vA

What will you make?


Have some of the nrf24l0 wifi units to play with. will test them with the Arduino first. One person suggest that a 100 nf capacitor be placed between plus five and ground for more power stability/



More information at: http://playground.arduino.cc/InterfacingWithHardware/Nrf24L01

Experimental code:



When is the best time to get a free computer? When marriages or couples break apart and when MSWindows users think they need a new machine because the operating system requires beefier hardware. Acquired this old P3 for free from a couple breakup. Wiped the drive and put Linux on it.



Home made pizza peel.

Good day.

Marching onward.

Leave a comment

Chit chat


Alas poor Nslu2, I knew you well.

Basic commonly known as Basic all-purpose instruction code is also known as BASIC – “Briskly Achieve Solutions Impossible in C”.

Cunningham’s Law states “the best way to get the right answer on the Internet is not to ask a question, it’s to post the wrong answer.”



Just some notes to myself.

Add to Path

export PATH=/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/local/games:/usr/games:/home/$USER/bc:/home/$USER/bin

Alternative ping command

fping -q -a -c 1 -g

List files in latest files last in in single lines

ls -rtl

Edit the score of Gnome mines,

cd /var/games
sudo vim gnomine.Small.scores

Moving like files to same directory. i,e, html and support folder.

mkdir html/js ; mv JavaScr* html/js/

Count files in a directory

ls -1 | wc -l

This did not work at all

wget -r -e robot.txt=off username.wordpress.com


Downloaded all the pdf files from my instructables site for use on a local server. Found a manual method that was not too cumbersome. The I used the following batch file to automatically create the html for the file listing.

ls *.pdf > pdflist
cut -d "." -f1 pdflist > descripts
sed -i -e 's/^/<a href=\"/' pdflist
sed -i 's/$/\"\>/' pdflist
paste -d "" pdflist descripts > pdflist.html
sed -i 's/$/\<\/a\>\<br \/\>/' pdflist.html
echo "<html>" > index.html
echo "<body>" >> index.html
echo "<h2><center>PDF list</center></h2>" >> index.html
echo "<hr>" >> index.html
cat pdflist.html >> index.html
echo "</body>" >> index.html
echo "</html>" >> index.html

Screenshot from 2015-05-01 07:52:14


Decided to add some alphabetic tags:

<a href="#a">A</a>
<p><a name="a">A</a></p>

Screenshot from 2015-05-02 17:56:56

Update to radio.sh script

Update:  Shoutcast stations work also.

Go to http://www.xatworld.com/radio-search/

One example:


Screenshot from 2015-05-02 17:14:13

Screenshot from 2015-05-02 17:09:13


For almost two years, or since Ubuntu 12.04 was released, there has been a steady stream of posts about PAE and related problems. 12.04 was the first Ubuntu for which a special non-PAE version wasn’t available. X/Lubuntu carried on supporting non-PAE processors for one release more, making 12.10 their first PAE-only release.Several workarounds have been published which enabled the affected hardware (the Banias part of the Pentium M family) to run the latest Buntus.From 14.04 the boot option forcepae has been added, which eliminates the need for these workarounds. More here.I suggest that when people encounter a PAE related question they spread the word and point to Lubuntu 14.04 and the boot option, provided that the person asking is willing to run a beta version, of course. We will try this option with a P I.


Use any of this information at you own risk.


The essence of security is simplicity, and when it comes to workstation or small-office Linux firewalls I have always been a fan of direct iptables use over some of the more popular alternatives ([g]ufw, fwbuilder). While they may be easier to use, they also hide a lot of the details. Especially when you are starting to learn about firewalls and network security, I believe you are better served using customizable firewall scripts like the two I detail below. When you get comfortable with iptables and networking concepts, then you can look to some of the other solutions. At that point, you’ll fully understand what they are doing under the hood.
Iptables Scripts

The first aptly-named shell script, ‘firewall.sh’, is meant to protect a SOHO (Small Office / Home Office) or home office network behind a dual-homed (two interface) firewall. It doesn’t support DMZ hosts, but does support the most common scenario of SOHO or home firewalls doing double-duty as SSH or web servers. It features forwarding, NAT (network address translation), syn-flood protection and rate-limiting for log entries.

The next script, ‘bastion-host.sh’, is much simpler, and is meant to be used on any host directly connected to the Internet, like a home workstation or laptop. It drops all inbound connections by default. Both scripts are well-commented, with any variables and each section explained. You can download the scripts here:

Dual-homed Linux firewall script
Singly-homed Linux firewall script (bastion host)  

Startup Options The way I like to use these scripts on a Debian or Ubuntu system (see below for an alternative if you use network manager) is very simple and is as follows:

First, put your chosen script in /usr/local/sbin, and make it owned by root with permissions 0700.


$ sudo cp ./firewall.sh /usr/local/sbin; chown root.root /usr/local/sbin/firewall.sh; chmod 0700 /usr/local/sbin/firewall.sh

Edit /etc/network/interfaces, and add the following line to the interface stanza of your external interface (usually eth0):


pre-up /usr/local/sbin/firewall.sh

So the stanza for your external interface will probably look something like this when you are done:


interface eth0 inet dhcp 

pre-up /usr/local/sbin/bastion-host.sh 



interface eth0 inet static 




pre-up /usr/local/sbin/firewall.sh

On desktop systems where you are using the network manager application, or on Red Hat, CentOS or Fedora systems, you can put scripts like this in /etc/rc.local (On Red Hat systems the comments and touch command are there already by default): #!/bin/sh # # This script will be executed *after* all the other init scripts. # You can put your own initialization stuff in here if you don’t # want to do the full Sys V style init stuff.


# touch /var/lock/subsys/local /usr/local/sbin/firewall.sh

Just make sure that if you use this method on Red Hat based systems, you stop the default iptables firewall:


# /etc/init.d/iptables stop chkconfig –level 2345 iptables off

If you would rather integrate your firewall into the Red Hat startup scripts, run the firewall script of your choice directly. Then save the rules so they will be read by the


# iptables init script: /usr/local/sbin/firewall.sh iptables-save > /etc/sysconfig/iptables service iptables restart

You would then need to do this every time you made a firewall script change.


When you make changes to the script, just run it again directly and check the firewall status (see below). There are times when an erroneous change will lock you or a network client out of your server. If you have direct access to the host, you can correct any errors that occur immediately from the console. If you are making firewall changes over an SSH session, rename the firewall script first, and make changes on the copy, so that you can just reboot the box as a last resort to get a known-good configuration. Some hosting providers also provide a remote console that is ideal for fixing mistakes.

Monitoring Firewall Status

You can view the currently loaded ruleset as follows:


# iptables -L -nvx iptables -t nat -L -nvx

The -nvx options give you the most detail possible – showing IP addresses instead of hostnames and full packet counts. This comes in handy if you want to see how often a rule is being hit, or if some rules never get hit. The option -t nat shows just the rules in the NAT table.

One final note, there is an ip6tables command that is the analogue of iptables for IPv6, and can be used independently of and alongside it.


Use webmin to set up and administer  your firewall rules remotely.

Older script:

# Red Hat Linux firewall using iptables
# Created: October 2002
# Last Revised: August 2006
# Authors: Dennis G. Allard (allard@oceanpark.com) and Don Cohen (don@isis.cs3-inc.com)
# This script works on on servers running Red Hat 7.3, 8.0, 9.0, and
# RHEL ES 3 and 4.  Variants of this script are in active use on
# many servers.
# No warranty is implied.  Use at your own risk!!

# Using this script
# —————–
# I save this file as /etc/sysconfig/iptables-precursor
# and then source it and run iptables-save to create
# /etc/sysconfig/iptables, which is an input file
# consumed by the script /etc/rc.d/init.d/iptables,
# which in turn makes use of the script /sbin/iptables-restore.
# Before mucking with setting up iptables, you should
# disconnect the machine from the internet.  Examine
# and understand the current set of iptables rules
# before you reconnect to the internet.
# To configure the set of iptables rules:
#   /etc/rc.d/init.d/iptables stop
#   source /etc/sysconfig/iptables-precursor
# To save the current set of iptables rules for use at next reboot:
#   iptables-save > /etc/sysconfig/iptables
# To dynamically restart iptables after modifying /etc/sysconfig/iptables:
#   /etc/rc.d/init.d/iptables restart
# Note that /etc/rc.d/init.d/iptables is a script.  You can read it to
# gain understanding of how iptables uses iptables-restore to restore
# iptables firewall rules at reboot.
# To examine the current set of rules in effect:
#   /etc/rc.d/init.d/iptables status
# However, I prefer to show the current set of rules via:
#   iptables -nvL -t filter
#   iptables -nvL -t nat
# or
#   iptables -vL -t filter
#   iptables -vL -t nat
# To configure iptables to be used at next system reboot:
#   chkconfig –add iptables
# To see if iptables is currently configured to start at boot, do:
#   chkconfig –list iptables
# (You might have to do chkconfig –del ipchains to remove ipchains)
# The rest of this file is derived from my old ipchains script.

# A word about routing
# ——————–
# Note that this web page does not discuss routing decisions.  Routing
# (see the ‘ifconfig’ and ‘route’ commands) decides which interface an
# incoming packet will be delivered to, i.e. if a given packet will be
# ‘input’ to this machine or be ‘forwarded’ to some interface for
# delivery to another machine, say on an internal network.  You should
# have your routing configured before you attempt to configure your
# firewall.
# Caveat.  DNAT and SNAT provide a way for the IPTABLES firewall to modify the
# Destination or Source IP addresses of a packet and, in this way, interact
# with routing decisions.  See section below: ‘More about NAT and routing’.

# The network
# ———–
# This firewall is running on a gateway machine having multiple ethernet
# interfaces, a public one, eth0, which is a DSL connection to an ISP,
# and one or more internal ones, including eth1, which is assigned to
#, an IP number on my internal private network.  My public
# network has static IP numbers depicted below as x.y.z….  Actual
# IP numbers would, of course, be a sequence of four octets.  For this
# script, I assume that the firewall is running on the same machine
# having the interfaces configued with my public IPs.  For this reason,
# most of the rules below are INPUT rules.  Were I to route some of my public
# static IP numbers to interfaces on one or more machines inside the
# firewall on the internal network, I would modify certain rules to be
# FORWARD rules instead of INPUT rules.  I show some examples below of
# FORWARD rules.  Finally, the script is just for a single server IP,
# hence all of the “/32″ network masks below.  A more realistic situation
# would involve using IP ranges and their corresponding network masks.
# The gateway at my ISP is x.y.z.1.  I run a few web servers on
# x.y.z.w, a DNS server on x.y.z.n, and qmail on x.y.z.m.
# Using this file in a more complex network would require some
# modifications. Particular attention would need to be given to using
# the right the IP numbers and interfaces, among other things. :-)

# Preliminaries
# ————-
# To permit machines internal to the network to be able to
# send IP packets to the outside world, enable IP Forwarding:
#   echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
# Prevent SYN floods from consuming memory resources:
#   echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies
# I place the above echo commands into /etc/rc.d/rc.local
# so that they will be executed at boot time.

# The basic idea of this firewall
# ——————————-
# Provide rules that are applied in the following order:
# ACCEPT all UDP packets for certain UDP services
# Currently the only UDP connections I accept are to my secure DNS
# server, tinydns. For an explanation of why tinydns is secure, see:
# http://www.faqts.com/knowledge_base/view.phtml/aid/8739/fid/699.
# DENY all other UDP packets.
# ACCEPT SYN packets just for certain TCP services
# SYN packets are specified via the -syn flag in the input
# rules defined below.  Note that certain services can be
# further filtered by xinetd.
# DENY all other TCP SYN packets.
# ACCEPT all other TCP packets that are part of existing connections
# DENY all other TCP packets.
# In other words, we allow any TCP packet through that is part of an
# established TCP connection, but we are very selective in just which
# connections we permit to be made to start off with.
# A brief explanation of SYN packets goes as follows.  TCP connections
# are initiated via a hand shaking protocol between the client and server
# programs at either end of the connection.  The very first TCP packet
# is sent by the client to the server and is called a SYN packet,
# because it has the SYN flag set to 1 in the TCP packet header.  We
# only allow SYN packets for the specific servers running on specific
# ports of specific hosts.  Subsequently, we only permit further TCP
# packets in that are determined to be part of a connection whose
# initial SYN packet was already accepted and responded to by one of our
# servers.  This is done via ‘Stateful Packet Inspection’ provided by the
# netfilter functionality added to linux as of kernel 2.4.  By stopping all
# other packets in their tracks, we limit attempts to attack our internal
# network.
# There are subtle ways that Denial of Service attacks can be performed
# if an attacker is able to somehow gain access to a machine inside our
# network or otherwise hijack a connection.  However, even in such
# cases, current research is leading to ways to greatly limit the effect
# of such attacks. For further reading, see: http://www.cs3-inc.com/ddos.html.
# For detailed background reading about iptables, please refer to:
# http://www.netfilter.org/documentation/HOWTO/packet-filtering-HOWTO.html

# begin oceanpark.com firewall rules (using iptables)
# —————————————————

# Here we go…

# Configure default policies (-P), meaning default rule to apply if no
# more specific rule below is applicable.  These rules apply if a more specific rule below
# is not applicable.  Defaults are to DROP anything sent to firewall or internal
# network, permit anything going out.
iptables -P INPUT DROP
iptables -P FORWARD DROP

# Flush (-F) all specific rules
iptables -F INPUT
iptables -F FORWARD
iptables -F OUTPUT
iptables -F -t nat

# The rest of this file contains specific rules that are applied in the order
# listed.  If none applies, then the above policy rules are used.

# Forward all packets from eth1 (internal network) to eth0 (the internet).
iptables -A FORWARD -i eth1 -o eth0 -j ACCEPT

# Forward packets that are part of existing and related connections from eth0 to eth1.
iptables -A FORWARD -i eth0 -o eth1 -m state –state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

# Permit packets in to firewall itself that are part of existing and related connections.
iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -m state –state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

# Note, in the above two rules, a connection becomes ESTABLISHED in the
# iptables PREROUTING chain upon receipt of a SYNACK packet that is a
# response to a previously sent SYN packet. The SYNACK packet itself is
# considered to be part of the established connection, so no special
# rule is needed to allow the SYNACK packet itself.

# Allow all inputs to firewall from the internal network and local interfaces
iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s 0/0 -d 0/0 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -i lo -s 0/0 -d 0/0 -j ACCEPT

# Enable SNAT functionality on eth0
# SNAT (Source NAT) is used to map private source IP numbers of
# interfaces on the internal LAN to one of my public static IP numbers.
# SNAT performs this mapping when a client running on one of the
# internal hosts (x.y.z.c) initiates a TCP connection (SYN) through
# eth0.
iptables -A POSTROUTING -t nat -s -o eth0 -j SNAT –to-source x.y.z.c

# Alternative to SNAT — MASQUERADE
# If your firewall has a dynamic IP number because it connects to the
# internet itself via DHCP, then you probably cannot predict what the IP
# number is of your firewall’s interface connected to the internet. In
# this case, you need a rule like the following that assigns the (an) IP
# number associated with eth0 to outgoing connections without you needing
# to know in advance (at time of writing this rule) what that IP number is:
# iptables -A POSTROUTING -t nat -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
# Note that the above SNAT and MASQUERADE rules are applicable
# independent of how a host on the internal network is assigned its own
# internal IP number.  The host could be assigned a static IP number on
# an internal nonpublic network (e.g. 10. or 192.168.)  or it could be
# itself assigned a dynamic IP number from your own DHCP server running
# on the firewall, or it could even have a public static IP number.
# However, it seems unlikely that one would want to assign a public IP
# number to a host and then proceed to hide that number from the public.

# Deny any packet coming in on the public internet interface eth0
# which has a spoofed source address from our local networks:
iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -s x.y.z.s/32 -j DROP
iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -s x.y.z.c/32 -j DROP
iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -s -j DROP
iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -s -j DROP

# Accept all tcp SYN packets for protocols SMTP, HTTP, HTTPS, and SSH:
# (SMTP connections are further audited by our SMTP server)
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d x.y.z.m/32 –destination-port 25 –syn -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 –destination-port 80 –syn -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 –destination-port 443 –syn -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 –destination-port 22 –syn -j ACCEPT

# Notice that the above rules are all INPUT rules.  My current network
# does not require me to make use of FORWARD rules, since I run all
# publicly accessible servers directly on my firewall machine.  But I
# promised above in the description of my network to give examples of
# rules used when there are servers running on machines on the internal
# network.  Following are examples of FORWARD rules I would use if I ran
# mail, web, and ssh servers on machines on the internal network inside
# the firewall.
# iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -s 0/0 -d x.y.z.m/32 –destination-port 25 –syn -j ACCEPT
# iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -s 0/0 -d x.y.z.w/32 –destination-port 80 –syn -j ACCEPT
# iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -s 0/0 -d x.y.z.w/32 –destination-port 443 –syn -j ACCEPT
# iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 –destination-port 22 –syn -j ACCEPT
# The first three of the above four rules would be used if my routing
# delivered packets having destination IP x.y.z.m, port 25, or IP
# x.y.z.w, port 80 or 443, to an interface connected to my internal
# network (i.e. the packet was being FORWARDed). The fourth of the above
# four rules is similar but operates on any destination IP, port 22.
# The difference between an INPUT rule and a FORWARD rule is that an
# INPUT rule applies to packets that are ‘input’ to this machine (the
# machine on which these iptables firewall rules are installed), whereas
# a FORWARD rule applies to packets that are being ‘fowarded’, i.e. to
# packets that are passing through this machine to some other machine,
# such as a machine on my internal network.
# If I ran my mail server on an internal machine, I would no longer
# need my previous INPUT rule for x.y.z.m and would use the above
# FORWARD rule instead.

# Begin Caveat, More about NAT and routing
# The above talk of routing is independent of the rules defined here.
# I.e., routing is determined by ifconfig, route, et. al.  I have not
# yet seen any very good explanation of how to setup the static routing
# table (what you see as output from the `route` command).  I will not
# attempt to remedy that lacuna at this time.  If you know of some
# good documenation that completely and accurately explains the
# semantics of the ifconfig and route commands, i.e., explains what
# affect each has such that I can reliably predict what the output
# of `route` will be after executing a sequence of ifconfig and
# route commands, then please do let me know.
# What *can* be done by IPTABLES rules that has the ‘feel’ of routing is
# DNAT (Destintion NAT) and SNAT (Source NAT).  DNAT and SNAT rules are,
# respectively, mechnisms to map the incoming destination IP number and
# outgoing source IP number to different IP numbers.  For example, SNAT
# can be used to map an internal source IP number to any one of your
# external public IP numbers so that a workstation on your internal
# network will appear to servers on the internet to which it connects to
# have a source IP number equal to the mapped public IP number.
# DNAT goes the other way. It is a mechanism used typically to map
# public destination IP numbers to internal private IP numbers.  (In
# fact, DNAT could also map public to public or private to private or
# private to public, but that is left as an exercise for the reader).
# So, for example, if you run a mail server on a machine configured with
# an internal IP number but wish to expose that service to the external
# world via a public IP number, DNAT is for you.
# Now, DNAT and SNAT are *not* routing but can *interact* with routing.
# Routing decides whether a packet is going to be INPUT to this machine
# or be FORWARDed to another machine.  That decision is done by routing.
# Once that decision is made, and only then, are the IPTABLES filtering
# rules (FORWARD and INPUT rules) applied to a given packet.  On the
# other hand DNAT is applied by a PREROUTING rule and SNAT by a POSTROUTING
# rule.  It is now time for you to read the following Packet Filtering
# HOWTO section:
# http://www.netfilter.org/documentation/HOWTO/packet-filtering-HOWTO-9.html
# which states:
#     It’s common to want to do Network Address Translation (see the
#     NAT HOWTO) and packet filtering. The good news is that they mix
#     extremely well.  [editor- The NAT HOWTO can be found at:
#     http://www.netfilter.org/documentation/HOWTO/NAT-HOWTO.html%5D
#     You design your packet filtering completely *ignoring* any NAT you
#     are doing. The sources and destinations seen by the packet filter
#     will be the `real’ sources and destinations. For example, if you
#     are doing DNAT to send any connections to port 80 through
#     to port 8080, the packet filter would see packets going
#     to port 8080 (the real destination), not port 80.
#     Similarly, you can ignore masquerading: packets will seem to come
#     from their real internal IP addresses (say, and replies
#     will seem to go back there.
# Hence, INPUT/FORWARD rules would operate on destination IP numbers
# *after* a DNAT rule is applied.  But if you don’t have any DNAT rules,
# then INPUT/FORWARD would apply to the IP numbers as they are in the
# incoming packet.
# INPUT or FORWARD would be needed purely depending on whether your
# routing would cause the packet to stay on the machine where the
# firewall is installed or be forwarded to another machine.  THAT
# decision is done by routing and *not* by DNAT or SNAT or anything
# else in this firewall script.
# It is perfectly possible for the machine having the firewall to have
# both public and internal IPs configured and/or for some packets to be
# INPUT and others to be FORWARDed.
# DNAT is done by a PREROUTING rule, so you should think of things as
# proceeding in the following order:
#     1.  apply PREROUTING DNAT rules (if any) to map destination IP
#     2.  apply routing decisions (see ifconfig et. al.)
#     3a. apply INPUT rules to packets having a destination IP on this machine
#     3b. apply FORWARD rules to packets having a destination IP elsewhere
#     4.  apply POSTROUTING SNAT rules (if any) to map source IP
# (3a and 3b can be done in either order since they apply to a mutually
# exclusive set of packets)
# I *think* that’s correct.
# End Caveat, More about NAT and routing

# Sometimes I run older versions of SSH on port 2200:
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 –destination-port 2200 –syn -j ACCEPT

# For imapd via stunnel (instead of xinetd-based imapd):
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 –destination-port 993 –syn -j ACCEPT

# For xinetd-based IMAP server (see /etc/xinetd.conf for who can use it):
#iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 –destination-port 143 –syn -j ACCEPT

# For DHCP server:
iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -p tcp –sport 68 –dport 67 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -p udp –sport 68 –dport 67 -j ACCEPT

# For LDAP clients:
#iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 –destination-port 389 -syn -j ACCEPT
#dga- worry about LDAP later (after I decode LDAP documentation (-;)

# DNS queries:
# Permit responses from our ISP’s DNS server.  When a client running on our
# host makes a DNS query, the outgoing query is allowed since we permit all
# outgoing packets.  The reply will be a UDP connection back to the high
# numbered client port from which the query was made.  So we only need to
# permit UDP packets from our ISP’s DNS servers back to high numbered ports:
#iptables -A INPUT -p udp -s <ISP DNS server IP>/32 –source-port 53 -d 0/0 –destination-port 1024:65535 -j ACCEPT
# But since we trust our ISP DNS Server not not have been hacked and we may
# not be sure what our client IP range is, we loosen this to:
iptables -A INPUT -p udp -s <ISP DNS server IP>/32 –source-port 53 -d 0/0 -j ACCEPT

# Running a caching DNS Server
# We need to permit querying a remote DNS server.  Since I am running
# a caching DNS server on x.y.z.d that makes requests for DNS lookups
# to external DNS servers, those servers send back responses via UDP to
# the high numbered client port on x.y.z.d where the caching server listens.
# I could of course increase security by running the dns cache on its own
# machine/IP and restricting to just that machine/IP.
iptables -A INPUT -p udp -s 0/0 –source-port 53 -d x.y.z.d/32 –destination-port 1024:65535 -j ACCEPT

# Running a DNS server (tinydns)
# When we run a DNS server, we have to accept UDP from anywhere to port 53
iptables -A INPUT -p udp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 –destination-port 53 -j ACCEPT

# Running a Master DNS Server to update slave DNS servers
# You may have your server colocated at an ISP and may arrange to have your
# ISP provide your primary and secondary DNS with the ISP DNS servers slaving
# off of your master DNS server.  This has the advantage of letting you be
# in full control of the DNS zone files yet keeping the DNS servers exposed
# to the public outside of your network.  To achieve this, in addition to
# permitting vanilla DNS responses from the ISP DNS serves, you also need
# to allow TCP connections from the ISP Master DNS Server:
# Allow DNS zone transfers via TCP from ISP Master DNS server:
# iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s <ISP Master DNS server IP>/32 -d 0/0 –destination-port 53 –syn -j ACCEPT

# For some other custom server running here listening on port <port number>:
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 –destination-port <port number> –syn -j ACCEPT

# For FTP server, restricted to specific local hosts (and see /etc/xinetd.conf):
# (for public file transfers we use scp, sftp, and related SSH file transfer tools)
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s x.y.z.s/32 -d 0/0 –destination-port 20 –syn -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s x.y.z.s/32 -d 0/0 –destination-port 21 –syn -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s -d 0/0 –destination-port 20 –syn -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s -d 0/0 –destination-port 21 –syn -j ACCEPT

# For Samba (smbd and nmbd), restricted to specific local client hosts (x.y.z.c):
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s x.y.z.c/32 -d x.y.z.s/32 –destination-port 139 –syn -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p udp -s x.y.z.c/32 -d x.y.z.s/32 –destination-port 137 -j ACCEPT

#Special cable modem rules.  I used to have a third ethernet card,
#eth2, attached to a separate ISP via a cable modem and used the rules
#shown below to cause a specific Windows machine on my internal network
#( to send traffic out via DSL and get it back via cable.
#This violates ingres filtering rules but seems to work.  It was neat
#since my cable modem had higher inbound bandwidth and it permitted
#me to do downloads without impacting my DSL inbound bandwidth.
#I no longer have that third interface, so no longer use this technique.
#iptables -A INPUT -i eth2 -s -j DROP
#iptables -A INPUT -i eth2 -s -j DROP
#iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s -d 0/0 -j SNAT –to-source

# Finally, DENY all connection requests to any UDP port not yet provided
# for and all SYN connection requests to any TCP port not yet provided
# for.  Using DENY instead of REJECT means that no ‘ICMP port
# unreachable’ response is sent back to the client attempting to
# connect.  I.e., DENY just ignores connection attempts.  Hence, use of
# DENY causes UDP connection requests to time out and TCP connection
# requests to hang.  Hence, using DENY instead of REJECT may have
# the effect of frustrating attackers due to increasing the amount of
# time taken to probe ports.
# Note that there is a fundamental difference between UDP and TCP
# protocols.  With UDP, there is no ‘successful connection’ response.
# With TCP, there is.  So an attacking client will be left in the dark
# about whether or not the denied UDP packets arrived and will hang
# waiting for a response from denied TCP ports.  An attacker will not
# be able to immediately tell if UDP connection requests are simply
# taking a long time, if there is a problem with connectivity between
# the attacking client and the server, or if the packets are being
# ignored.  This increases the amount of time it takes for an attacker
# to scan all UDP ports.  Similarly, TCP connection requests to denied
# ports will hang for a long time.  By using REJECT instead of DENY, you
# would prevent access to a port in a more ‘polite’ manner, but give out
# more information to wannabe attackers, since the attacker can positively
# detect that a port is not accessible in a small amount of time from
# the ‘ICMP port unreachable’ response.

iptables -A INPUT -s 0/0 -d 0/0 -p udp -j DROP
iptables -A INPUT -s 0/0 -d 0/0 -p tcp –syn -j DROP

# end oceanpark.com firewall rules (using iptables)
# ————————————————-


Freebasic is free and is available for most platforms.

compile with

fbc -lang qb filerdr.bas


open "file" for input as #1 

open "notes" for output as #2 

open "notes-cs" for output as #3 

do while not eof(1) 

input #1, a$ 

b$ = left$(a$,2) 

c$ = mid$(a$,4,2) 

print #2,"NOTE_";b$;", "; 

print #3, c$;", "; 


close #1 

close #2\

close #3





3 , 23,


Screenshot from 2015-05-09 09:05:01


Unfinished. Use at your own risk.

Minimal install ubuntu router

At least 2 nics wan(primary)/lan(secondary)

set hostname

set User name

set password for user and verify

encrypt home directory ?

set Timezone

Use “Guided” default disk partitions setup

Set proxy if needed

Configure updates for automatic install. Security            automatically)

Software install (just openssh server)

Boot loader (best for single os install) install brub to master boot record)


Command line login with username and password

sudo will be used alot

Add  webmin repo

Test version of Webmin in Ubuntu Linux from its official repository.

As you may know, Webmin is a web-based interface for system administration for Unix. Using any modern web browser, you can setup user accounts, Apache, DNS, file sharing and much more. Webmin removes the need to manually edit Unix configuration files like /etc/passwd, and lets you manage a system from the console or remotely.

To get started, login your remote server and follow the steps below:

1. Run below command to edit the source file:

sudo vi /etc/apt/sources.list

2. Press i on keyboard to start editing the file and add this line into the end:

deb http://download.webmin.com/download/repository sarge contrib

Press Esc to exit edit. Shift + : and followed by wq to save the changes.

3. Now execute command to download and install the key:

wget -q http://www.webmin.com/jcameron-key.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add –

4. After that, you can always use below commands to install the latest version of Webmin:

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install webmin

Install software

$ sudo apt-get install webmin bind9 perl dhcp3server openssl

sudo vim /etc/network/interfaces

Look at setup.

Add interface for lan

# wan network interface

auto eth0

iface eth0 inet dhcp

# lan network interface

auto eth1

iface eth0 inet static





Enable ipv4

$ sudo vim /etc/sysctl.conf

scro0ll down and uncomment line for packetforwarding for ipv4

see running interfaces

$ ifconfig

eth1 may not be up

see interfaces

$ ifconfig -a

start lan interface

$ sudo ifup eth1

Should see both cards

$ ifconfig

Hook computer to lan interface and reget ip addess

Go to another machine and use web browser

for the url use

add security exception


Change timezone if needed

Go to configuration

Go to ports and addresses

change any address to only listen on server address

Port 10000 is ok


Go back to configuration

Goto Ipaccess control

Goto  allowed addresses

Include local network

add current machine

Allow resolve hostnames


Go back to configuration

Goto Networking

Check interfaces in network configuration

Goto config dhcp server

Hostname and Dnsserver

Add router as primary dns server

Search domain as wanb address


Goto Server

Goto Dhcp server

Add new subnet

subnet and other infor from from /etc/net/interfaces file

Description to whatever you like.

Set address on same subnet for use with client machines.

Static addresses should not be part of dhcp addresses.

you can change default lease times

Edit client options

Add subnet

default router lan address



edit network interfaces

set eth1  (lan) as interface to give out addesses

start dhcp server

Reserve an address

need mac address and an address to use.

leave at top level

add hostname for resolving.

apply changes

Goto Configure firewall

Set nat translatiopn on external interface (eth0)

Enable firewall at boot time

setup firewall

Goto Packet filtering

Default action on incoming packets to drop


Drop forwarded packets

Add rules to incoming packets

1 accept all incoming packets on loopback (lo) interface


2  accept all incoming packets on eth1


3 accept packets from eth1 needs to be related to established from internal or already established (connection state) related to eth0

4 forwarded packets accept input eth1 and output eth0


5 accept established and related traffic for eth0 to eth1

accept all outgoing packets


log dropped packes if space

log packets

if eth0 for

if noit logged the dropped

view logfile


Here is a web based interface to control some low voltage lines via the
Arduino.  The web interface will let you either singly turn an led on of off. You can also turn all the leds on or off at one time. From there you can interface all kinds of equipment.  Thebasoc circuit for the project is:

Or to look at an Arduino board the relevant pins are:

Whether is is for a Personal computer or one of many microcontrollers, the interfacing technique is pretty much the same. Here are two links to consider:



Now you can remotely turn on for off many devices and a start at home automation.

The code:

#include <Ethernet.h>

#include <SPI.h>

//network NB: Pins 10, 11, 12 and 13 are reserved for Ethernet module.

byte mac[] = { 0xDE, 0xAD, 0xBE, 0xEF, 0xFE, 0xED };

byte ip[] = { 192, 168, 1, 200 };

byte gateway[] = { 192, 168, 1, 1 };

byte subnet[] = { 255, 255, 255, 0 };

String inString = String(35);

String Led;
String z;

int led[] = {00, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, }; //Led pins num 0 in arry is not used

int numofleds = 7; //numofleds

String value[] = {"on","on","on","on","on","on","on","on","on"}; //startup all led are off

EthernetServer server(80);

String data;

void setup()



Ethernet.begin(mac, ip,gateway,subnet);


//set pin mode

for (int j = 0; j < (numofleds + 1); j++){

pinMode(led[j], OUTPUT);


Serial.println("Serial READY");

Serial.println("Ethernet READY");

Serial.println("Server READY");


void loop()


EthernetClient client = server.available();


// an http request ends with a blank line

boolean current_line_is_blank = true;

while (client.connected()) {

if(client.available()) {

char c = client.read();

// if we've gotten to the end of the line (received a newline

// character) and the line is blank, the http request has ended,

// so we can send a reply

if (inString.length() < 35) {



if (c == '\n' && current_line_is_blank) {

// send a standard http response header

client.println("HTTP/1.1 200 OK");

client.println("Content-Type: text/html");


client.println("<html><body><form method=get>");

client.println("<p>Led controller</p>");

client.println("<p>Each led</p>");

for(int i=2;i < (numofleds + 1) ;i++){

Led = String("Led") + i;
z = String("#") + i;
if(inString.indexOf(Led+"=on")>0 || inString.indexOf("all=on")>0){


digitalWrite(led[i], HIGH);

value[i] = "off";

}else if(inString.indexOf(Led+"=off")>0 || inString.indexOf("all=off")>0 ){


digitalWrite(led[i], LOW);

value[i] = "on";


client.println("<br> Led "+z+"  <input type=submit name="+Led+" value="+value[i]+">");


client.println("<p>All leds</p>");
client.println("<input type=submit name=all value=on><input type=submit name=all value=off>");




if (c == '\n') {

// we're starting a new line

current_line_is_blank = true;

} else if (c != '\r') {

// we've gotten a character on the current line

current_line_is_blank = false;




// give the web browser time to receive the data


inString = "";





This article is more about window dressing more than anything else. The Arduino comes with a nice bit of web server code that reports the results of some temperature sensors. Thought the code could use at least some minimal improvements. Also put the the Arduino web address on the dns so that it could be called by the hostname lookup instead of the ipaddress. The important part of the changed code is included. Normally you can not store images on the Arduino, but you can reference them from another site.

void loop() {
  // listen for incoming clients
  EthernetClient client = server.available();
  if (client) {
    Serial.println("new client");
    // an http request ends with a blank line
    boolean currentLineIsBlank = true;
    while (client.connected()) {
      if (client.available()) {
        char c = client.read();
        // if you've gotten to the end of the line (received a newline
        // character) and the line is blank, the http request has ended,
        // so you can send a reply
        if (c == '\n' && currentLineIsBlank) {
          // send a standard http response header
          client.println("HTTP/1.1 200 OK");
          client.println("Content-Type: text/html");
          client.println("Connnection: close");
          client.println("<!DOCTYPE HTML>");
                    // add a meta refresh tag, so the browser pulls again every 5 seconds:
          client.println("<meta http-equiv=\"refresh\" content=\"5\">");
          // output the value of each analog input pin
          client.println("<h2>Analog sensor information page</h2>");
 width='200' height='200'>");
          client.println("<table border='1'>");
          client.println("Sensor number");
          client.println("Sensor value");
          for (int analogChannel = 0; analogChannel < 6; analogChannel++) {
            int sensorReading = analogRead(analogChannel);
            client.println("<br />");     
        if (c == '\n') {
          // you're starting a new line
          currentLineIsBlank = true;
        else if (c != '\r') {
          // you've gotten a character on the current line
          currentLineIsBlank = false;
    // give the web browser time to receive the data
    // close the connection:
    Serial.println("client disonnected");

Example of how to the the temperature with an arduino.  From Ubuntu and the Arduino on http://www.instructables.com

 Temp sensor. Is it too hot for you or your equipment, so now you can tell. Using an ice cube  will gve you a good test of the unit.Could also be the start of a sous vide machine.<code.>

//declare variables
float tempC;
int tempPin = 0;

void setup()
Serial.begin(9600); //opens serial port, sets data rate to 9600 bps

void loop()
tempC = analogRead(tempPin);           //read the value from the sensor
tempC = (5.0 * tempC * 100.0)/1024.0;  //convert the analog data to temperature
Serial.print((byte)tempC);             //send the data to the computer
delay(1000);                           //wait one second before sending new data




Pasta drying stand


Good day.

Moving on, I hope.

Leave a comment

Chit chat


The personal computer was actually invented by a Texas chicken farmer which was known as the glass teletype and the company became known as Datapoint.

Bad storm and the power went out. Had to use the UPS (on battery only) for the router and the palmtop to see when the electricity might be restored.

Shame the AT&T door to door harassment teams do not understand what the term “No soliciting” means..

The new Microcenter store makes Frys look like a Radio Shack store.

Playing Soduku more and more.

Screenshot from 2015-04-18 16:45:25


Quickie hints:

Set the path:

$ export PATH=/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/local/games:/usr/games:/home/$USER/bc:/home/$USER/bin

Add icons and etc to desktop:

Run this command in your terminal (Applications > Accessories > Terminal):

# show files on desktop
gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background show-desktop-icons true

# show shares on desktop
gsettings set org.gnome.nautilus.desktop volumes-visible true

# restart nautilus or logout and log back in.
nautilus -q


Please keep your systems up to date!

For linux (depending on the distro:)

$ sudo apt-get update; sud apt-get upgrade
$ sudo yum update; sudo yum, upgrade
$ sudo pacman -Syu



Rp1 cases

There are a lot of diy cases on the net. Probably the most notable one is the cardboard case.  You can easily find them on the net by looking for RPi printable cases. Besure and tell the print program to not resize the image.

This next two were not real impressive and not so easily put together. Kind of flimsy?

This next one seemed a bit complicated.

Then there are the .dxf files with Librecad so you can use them a laser cutter or cnc router.



Cases can be expensive for micro-controllers, but if you can forgo the exactness you can use very inexpensive containers, This is especially true for controllers that might have several layer of capes, and or add-on boards

You can get inexpensive containers 3 or more for a dollar at a discount store.

Once you have your containers, you will want to modify them.

Then lastly you will want to bolt down the board. #4 machine screws should work fine for this. and viola you have your own case.


Screenshot from 2015-04-20 01:41:55

Setting up a network scanner:

Here are the steps to installing and accessing a network scanner from Ubuntu desktop client. It is assumed that the network scanner server is already up and running.

1) Let us first check whether there is a scanner available on our Ubuntu client host. Without any prior setup, you will see the message saying that “No scanners were identified.”

$ scanimage -L

2) Now we need to enable saned daemon which comes pre-installed on Ubuntu desktop. To enable it, we need to edit the /etc/default/saned file, and set the RUN variable to yes:

$ sudo vim /etc/default/saned
# Set to yes to start saned

3) Let’s edit the /etc/sane.d/net.conf file, and add the IP address of the server where the scanner is installed:

4) Restart saned:

$ sudo service saned restart

5) Let’s see if the scanner is available now:

Now we can open “Simple Scan” (or other scanning utility) and start scanning documents. We can rotate, crop, and save the resulting image:

Note: most generic print servers do not support this feature.


How to download and install prebuilt OpenJDK packages
Debian, Ubuntu, etc.

On the command line, type:

$ sudo apt-get install openjdk-7-jre

For development
$ sudo apt-get install openjdk-7-jdk

To make sure you are using the right version

$ sudo update-alternatives –config java

For the browser:

$ sudo apt-get install  icedtea-7-plugin

The openjdk-7-jre package contains just the Java Runtime Environment. If you want to develop Java programs then install the openjdk-7-jdk package.
Fedora, Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, etc.

On the command line, type:
$ su -c “yum install java-1.7.0-openjdk”

The java-1.7.0-openjdk package contains just the Java Runtime Environment. If you want to develop Java programs then install the java-1.7.0-openjdk-devel package.
Debian, Ubuntu, etc.

On the command line, type:
$ sudo apt-get install openjdk-6-jre

The openjdk-6-jre package contains just the Java Runtime Environment. If you want to develop Java programs then install the openjdk-6-jdk package.
Fedora, Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, etc.

On the command line, type:
$ su -c “yum install java-1.6.0-openjdk”

The java-1.6.0-openjdk package contains just the Java Runtime Environment. If you want to develop Java programs then install the java-1.6.0-openjdk-devel package.
BSD Port

For a list of pointers to packages of the BSD Port for DragonFly BSD, FreeBSD, Mac OS X, NetBSD and OpenBSD, please see the BSD porting Project’s wiki page.


Set up your own computer based radio. radiolocator.com is a good place to start for looking to find available stations.

Many radio stations will let you listen to their live stream, Sometimes you can find and use the link on their web page. Sometimes you have to venture through web page html to find it the file and download it from their server. So if that file gets updated, you will need to get the file again.

A play list might look like:

$ cat klolfmaac.pls



$ cat koda-fm.m3u

So log in to the remote server and install your files (the shell file and the play lists). The modify the shell file for the location of the play lists. Make the shell file executable.

$ chmod +x radio,sh
What I do is install screen so I can let go of the script if I need to and then come back later to it.

$ screen
<ctrl>A d) to disconnect

Get screen sessions

$ screen -ls

Then reconnect with:

$ screen -r <session number or name>

Then just run it

$ ./radio.sh

Press q to quit
$ exit to leave screen session.

# Script to emulate a radop.
while :
echo "************************"
echo "* Radio tuner          *"
echo "************************"
echo "* [1] Alvin            *"
echo "* [2] 91.7 classical   *"
echo "* [3] 88.7 global      *"
echo "* [4] Kuhf news        *"
echo "* [5] KPFT             *"
echo "* [6] Koda             *"
echo "* [7] KTBZ             *"
echo "* [8] KSBJ             *"
echo "* [9] KGLT             *"
echo "*                      *"
echo "* [0] Exit/Stop        *"
echo "************************"
echo "Enter your menu choice [1-9 or 0]: "
read -n 1 yourch
case $yourch in
1) mplayer -playlist http://www.kaccradio.com/images/KACCRadio.asx  ;;
2) mplayer -playlist  http://www.publicbroadcasting.net/kuhf/ppr/kuha_128.m3u  ;;
3) mplayer -playlist  http://www.publicbroadcasting.net/kuhf/ppr/kuhfglobal_128.m3u  ;;
4) mplayer -playlist http://www.publicbroadcasting.net/kuhf/ppr/kuhfnews_128.m3u  ;;
5) mplayer -playlist http://kpft.org/KPFT-hifi.wma ;;
6) mplayer -playlist koda-fm.m3u  ;;
7) mplayer -playlist ktbz-fm.m3u  ;;
8) mplayer -playlist ksbjfmaac.pls  ;;
9) mplayer -playlist kglkfmaac.pls ;;
0) exit 0;;
*) echo "Oopps!!! Please select choice 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, or 9"
echo "Press Enter to continue. . ." ; read ;;


Slow ascii file reader

$ ./asccirdr.[filename]


# A program to slowly cat file or standard input.

if [ "$1" ] ; then

cat "$file" | while read c ; do
echo "$c"

# change delay for speed of viewing.

sleep .005



Ereader is optional by using your portable music player.



Simple python calender

$ python cal.py

Screenshot from 2015-04-26 23:30:20

$ cat cal.py
import calendar


Create a table with python for use in a web page.

Screenshot from 2015-04-26 23:37:43

$ python table.py
<tr><td style=”font-weight: bold;”>1</td><td>5572</td><td>4860</td><td>3289</td></tr>
<tr><td style=”font-weight: bold;”>2</td><td>7419</td><td>5313</td><td>4522</td></tr>
<tr><td style=”font-weight: bold;”>3</td><td>8962</td><td>7636</td><td>7714</td></tr>
<tr><td style=”font-weight: bold;”>4</td><td>8330</td><td>3408</td><td>3646</td></tr>
<tr><td style=”font-weight: bold;”>5</td><td>6894</td><td>2333</td><td>5806</td></tr>

save to file with:

python table.py > tabletest.html

import random
def rand9999():
return random.randint(1000, 9999)
def tag(attr='', **kwargs):
for tag, txt in kwargs.items():
return '<{tag}{attr}>{txt}</{tag}>'.format(**locals())
if __name__ == '__main__':
header = tag(tr=''.join(tag(th=txt) for txt in ',X,Y,Z'.split(','))) + '\n'
rows = '\n'.join(tag(tr=''.join(tag(' style="font-weight: bold;"', td=i)
+ ''.join(tag(td=rand9999())
for j in range(3))))
for i in range(1, 6))
table = tag(table='\n' + header + rows + '\n')


Bachelor tortilla (a little rolling pin action).


Good day.

Jupiter goes forward.

Leave a comment

Chit chat


Have not taken time yet to fix the email server..

Was able to get my old RP1 up and running again. Somehow it had a bad image. Put Openelec on the mm card for testing.

The Easter bunny brought me an RPi-2.

Finally getting used to connecting wireless with my nexus 7 tablet with much regret.

Hopefully Libreoffice will come out with their web based version soon. Saving a place on the server for it. Like the policy of install once but us many.

Keep getting messages about updating the Pogoplug. Since going to arch linux, we have not used that service in forever.

Raspberry Pi case?



Now let us take a look a remote music controller called mpd. With mplayer we could do everything from the command line, mpw we should be able to use the gui on the remote machine. We will not need to use ssh here either.

You will want to set up your host machines with speakers as before. Then we need to add a new piece of software called mpd. It is available for a wide variety of systems including android.

$ sudo apt-get install mpd.

Server does not have to have gui installed. Copy your music files to the server if they are not already there. Then you will want so edit the config file for you file settings and etc.

$ sudo vim /etc/mpd.conf

Once you have that done, you will need to go to the client machine and install the following:

$ sudo apt-get install mpc gmpc

Then go to the gui menu for the  sound and video.   Choose the gnome-music-okayer-client. Everything is gui form there. You will need to set the servername and the port number (usually 6600). In many cases it will autodetect it for you.

Start playing music from the server.


Remember the old concentration game from many years ago. You can make your own version. you will need thirty clear plastic envelopes. They can be make from cheap clear plastic lunch bags and clear plastic tape. Poster board can be used for making the large frames. You will also need to make some blue cards with the embossed numbers for each of the bags. Of course you will need a frame to hold the puzzle background.

Lastly you will need a puzzle to use as the background. You can use your favorite drawing program the will let you import pictures. Gimp is what we like to use  There are thousands on-line that you can use or even use your own. Such as:

The sky is the limit with your imagination. More information at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concentration_%28game_show%29


Just an experiment to determine the amount of days between two dates. In this case it is the days left in the current presidency.

D=`date +%Y-%m-%d`
D1=`date +%s -d "$D"`
D2=`date +%s -d "2017-01-20"`
echo - | awk -v SECS=$diff_sec '{printf "Number of days : %d",SECS/(60*60*24)}'
echo " till Obama leaves office."


$ ./datediff.sh
Number of days : 656 days till Obama leaves office.

or semigui:

D=`date +%Y-%m-%d`
D1=`date +%s -d "$D"`
D2=`date +%s -d "2017-01-20"`
a=`echo - | awk -v SECS=$diff_sec '{printf "Number of days : %d",SECS/(60*60*24)}'`
a=$a" till Obama leaves office."
zenity --info --text="$a"

Screenshot from 2015-04-11 03:54:56


Really feel for Mr. Banzi and the fact that everyone is making their own version of the Arduino. You can get the bare  chips and make your own. You can get the boards as low as ten dollars even at a retail outlet. Had a spare ethernet board I bought from Radio shack on sale. So when I saw a compatible board for only ten dollars, I had to get it.

The main reason, I wanted this version of the board is that I have some Arduino chips that that can be plugged and played on the board versus the surface mounted versions which will not plug and play.

For those systems that need acm

$ sudo apt-get install hal
$ sudo usermod -a -G tty $USER
$ sudo usermod -a -G dialout $USER

Speaking the Arduino, they have a newer IDE. When I downloaded a recent version, I had problems. The one I downloaded today seems to work. Tested the new Arduino board and the extra ethernet board we had. Seemed to work. The page for the new software is: http://arduino.cc/en/Main/Software

One thing I like about the new ide is that if gives you a basic form to start with, which saves time. In fact you cut and paste the minimal code in the old ide software/

void setup() {
// put your setup code here, to run once:


void loop() {
// put your main code here, to run repeatedly:

Time to go back and work on the Sous vide project.

The Nexus 7 has a neat little ide also


Primer on ipv6


One of the main benefits of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) over previously used Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the large address-space that contains (addressing) information to route packets for the next generation Internet.

IPv6 supports 128-bit address space and can potentially support 2128 or 3.4W1038 unique IP addresses (as opposed to 32-bit address space of IPv4). With this large address-space scheme, IPv6 has the capability to provide unique addresses to each and every device or node attached to the Internet.



Why we need IPv6 Addressing

An escalating demand for IP addresses acted as the driving force behind the development of the large address space offered by the IPv6. According to industry estimates, in the wireless domain, more than a billion mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDA), and other wireless devices will require Internet access, and each will need its own unique IP address.

The extended address length offered by IPv6 eliminates the need to use techniques such as network address translation to avoid running out of the available address space. IPv6 contains addressing and control information to route packets for the next generation Internet.

IPv6 addresse formats are divided into three classes:

1) Unicast addresses A Unicast address acts as an identifier for a single interface. An IPv6 packet sent to a Unicast address is delivered to the interface identified by that address.

2) Multicast addresses A Multicast address acts as an identifier for a group/set of interfaces that may belong to the different nodes. An IPv6 packet delivered to a Multicast address is delivered to the multiple interfaces.

3) Anycast addresses Anycast addresses act as identifiers for a set of interfaces that may belong to the different nodes. An IPv6 packet destined for an Anycast address is delivered to one of the interfaces identified by the address.


IPv6 Address Notation

IPv6 addresses are denoted by eight groups of hexadecimal quartets separated by colons in between them.

Following is an example of a valid IPv6 address: 2001:cdba:0000:0000:0000:0000:3257:9652

Any four-digit group of zeroes within an IPv6 address may be reduced to a single zero or altogether omitted. Therefore, the following IPv6 addresses are similar and equally valid:




The URL for the above address will be of the form:


Network Notation in IPv6

The IPv6 networks are denoted by Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) notation. A network or subnet using the IPv6 protocol is denoted as a contiguous group of IPv6 addresses whose size must be a power of two. The initial bits of an IPv6 address (these are identical for all hosts in a network) form the network s prefix. The size of bits in a network prefix are separated with a / . For example, 2001:cdba:9abc:5678::/64 denotes the network address 2001:cdba:9abc:5678. This network comprises of addresses rearranging from 2001:cdba:9abc:5678:: up to 2001:cdba:9abc:5678:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff. In a similar fashion, a single host may be denoted as a network with a 128-bit prefix. In this way, IPv6 allows a network to comprise of a single host and above.

Special Addresses in IPv6

::/96 The zero prefix denotes addresses that are compatible with the previously used IPv4 protocol.

::/128 An IPv6 address with all zeroes in it is referred to as an unspecified address and is used for addressing purposes within a software.

::1/128 This is called the loop back address and is used to refer to the local host. An application sending a packet to this address will get the packet back after it is looped back by the IPv6 stack. The local host address in the IPv4 was .

2001:db8::/32 This is a documentation prefix allowed in the IPv6. All the examples of IPv6 addresses should ideally use this prefix to indicate that it is an example.

fec0::/10 This is a site-local prefix offered by IPv6. This address prefix signifies that the address is valid only within the local organization. Subsequently, the usage of this prefix has been discouraged by the RFC.

fc00::/7 This is called the Unique Local Address (ULA). These addresses are routed only within a set of cooperating sites. These were introduced in the IPv6 to replace the site-local addresses. These addresses also provide a 40-bit pseudorandom number that reduces the risk of address conflicts.

ff00::/8 This prefix is offered by IPv6 to denote the multicast addresses. Any address carrying this prefix is automatically understood to be a multicast address.

fe80::/10 This is a link-local prefix offered by IPv6. This address prefix signifies that the address is valid only in the local physical link.


ipv4 web calculator. You can find it on the web if you look.

Screenshot from 2015-04-10 00:49:58

Screenshot from 2015-04-10 00:47:56

Screenshot from 2015-04-10 00:51:03

Screenshot from 2015-04-10 00:52:18

Some ipv6 calculators also on the web

Screenshot from 2015-04-10 00:46:42

Screenshot from 2015-04-10 00:45:14

Screenshot from 2015-04-10 00:43:53


Another ipv6 Calcer

Screenshot from 2015-04-12 22:16:34

Screenshot from 2015-04-12 22:17:15


If you’re a Linux system administrator, chances are you’ve got more than one machine that you’re responsible for on a daily basis. You may even have a bank of machines that you maintain that are similar — a farm of Web servers, for example. If you have a need to type the same command into several machines at once, you can login to each one with SSH and do it serially, or you can save yourself a lot of time and effort and use a tool like ClusterSSH.

ClusterSSH is a Tk/Perl wrapper around standard Linux tools like XTerm and SSH. As such, it’ll run on just about any POSIX-compliant OS where the libraries exist — I’ve run it on Linux, Solaris, and Mac OS X. It requires the Perl libraries Tk (perl-tk on Debian or Ubuntu) and X11::Protocol (libx11-protocol-perl on Debian or Ubuntu), in addition to xterm and OpenSSH.


Installing ClusterSSH on a Debian or Ubuntu system is trivial — a simple sudo apt-get install clusterssh will install it and its dependencies. It is also packaged for use with Fedora, and it is installable via the ports system on FreeBSD. There’s also a MacPorts version for use with Mac OS X, if you use an Apple machine. Of course, it can also be compiled from source.


ClusterSSH can be configured either via its global configuration file — /etc/clusters, or via a file in the user’s home directory called .csshrc. I tend to favor the user-level configuration as that lets multiple people on the same system to setup their ClusterSSH client as they choose. Configuration is straightforward in either case, as the file format is the same. ClusterSSH defines a “cluster” as a group of machines that you’d like to control via one interface. With that in mind, you enumerate your clusters at the top of the file in a “clusters” block, and then you describe each cluster in a separate section below.

For example, let’s say I’ve got two clusters, each consisting of two machines. “Cluster1″ has the machines “Server1″ and “Server2″ in it, and “Cluster2″ has the machines “Server3″ and “Server4″ in it. The ~.csshrc (or /etc/clusters) control file would look like this:

clusters = cluster1 cluster2

cluster1 = server1 server2
cluster2 = server3 server4

You can also make meta-clusters — clusters that refer to clusters. If you wanted to make a cluster called “all” that encompassed all the machines, you could define it two ways. First, you could simply create a cluster that held all the machines, like the following:

clusters = cluster1 cluster2 all

cluster1 = server1 server2
cluster2 = server3 server4
all = server1 server2 server3 server4

However, my preferred method is to use a meta-cluster that encompasses the other clusters:

clusters = cluster1 cluster2 all

cluster1 =Server1 server2
cluster2 = server3 server4
all = cluster1 cluster2

Figure 1: Lauching ClusterSSH

By calling out the “all” cluster as containing cluster1 and cluster2, if either of those clusters ever change, the change is automatically captured so you don’t have to update the “all” definition. This will save you time and headache if your .csshrc file ever grows in size.

Using ClusterSSH

Using ClusterSSH is similar to launching SSH by itself. Simply running cssh -l <username> <clustername> will launch ClusterSSH and log you in as the desired user on that cluster. In the figure below, you can see I’ve logged into “cluster1″ as myself. The small window labeled “CSSH [2]” is the Cluster SSH console window. Anything I type into that small window gets echoed to all the machines in the cluster — in this case, machines “server1″ and “server2″. In a pinch, you can also login to machines that aren’t in your .csshrc file, simply by running cssh -l <username> <machinename1> <machinename2> <machinename3>.

If I want to send something to one of the terminals, I can simply switch focus by clicking in the desired XTerm, and just type in that window like I usually would. ClusterSSH has a few menu items that really help when dealing with a mix of machines. As per the figure below, in the “Hosts” menu of the ClusterSSH console there’s are several options that come in handy.

“Retile Windows” does just that if you’ve manually resized or moved something. “Add host(s) or Cluster(s)” is great if you want to add another set of machines or another cluster to the running ClusterSSH session. Finally, you’ll see each host listed at the bottom of the “Hosts” menu. By checking or unchecking the boxes next to each hostname, you can select which hosts the ClusterSSH console will echo commands to. This is handy if you want to exclude a host or two for a one-off or particular reason. The final menu option that’s nice to have is under the “Send” menu, called “Hostname”. This simply echoes each machine’s hostname to the command line, which can be handy if you’re constructing something host-specific across your cluster.

Caveats with ClusterSSH

Like many UNIX tools, ClusterSSH has the potential to go horribly awry if you aren’t very careful with its use. I’ve seen ClusterSSH mistakes take out an entire tier of Web servers simply by propagating a typo in an Apache configuration. Having access to multiple machines at once, possibly as a privileged user, means mistakes come at a great cost. Take care, and double-check what you’re doing before you punch that Enter key.


ClusterSSH isn’t a replacement for having a configuration management system or any of the other best practices when managing a number of machines. However, if you need to do something in a pinch outside of your usual toolset or process, or if you’re doing prototype work, ClusterSSH is indispensable. It can save a lot of time when doing tasks that need to be done on more than one machine, but like any power tool, it can cause a lot of damage if used haphazardly.


Homnemade SOS


Good day.


Older Entries


Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.